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Research Techniques in Animal Ecology : Controversies and Consequences - Luigi Boitani

Research Techniques in Animal Ecology

Controversies and Consequences

By: Luigi Boitani (Editor), Todd Fuller (Editor)

Paperback Published: 1st June 2000
ISBN: 9780231113410
Number Of Pages: 464
For Ages: 22+ years old

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The present biodiversity crisis is rife with opportunities to make important conservation decisions; however, the misuse or misapplication of the methods and techniques of animal ecology can have serious consequences for the survival of species. Still, there have been relatively few critical reviews of methodology in the field. This book provides an analysis of some of the most frequently used research techniques in animal ecology, identifying their limitations and misuses, as well as possible solutions to avoid such pitfalls. In the process, contributors to this volume present new perspectives on the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data.

"Research Techniques in Animal Ecology" is an overarching account of central theoretical and methodological controversies in the field, rather than a handbook on the minutiae of techniques. The editors have forged comprehensive presentations of key topics in animal ecology, such as territory and home range estimates, habitation evaluation, population viability analysis, GIS mapping, and measuring the dynamics of societies. Striking a careful balance, each chapter begins by assessing the shortcomings and misapplications of the techniques in question, followed by a thorough review of the current literature, and concluding with possible solutions and suggested guidelines for more robust investigations.

The authors present the material in an insightful manner that leaves readers wondering how the improper application of many of the discussed techniques has played or will play out in wildlife management. -- Ramona Maraj Environments

Authorsp. xv
List of Illustrationsp. xix
List of Tablesp. xxiii
Prefacep. xxv
Hypothesis Testing in Ecologyp. 1
Some Definitionsp. 1
What Is a Hypothesis?p. 3
Hypotheses and Modelsp. 4
Hypotheses and Paradigmsp. 6
Statistical Hypothesesp. 8
Hypotheses and Predictionp. 10
Acknowledgmentsp. 12
Literature Citedp. 12
A Critical Review of the Effects of Marking on the Biology of Vertebratesp. 15
Review of the Literaturep. 16
Which Markers to Use?p. 17
Effects of Markers Among Taxap. 17
Critique of Marker Evaluation Studiesp. 35
Review of Current Guidance Available for Choosing Markersp. 37
Critique of Guidelines Available for Choosing Markersp. 39
Survey of Recent Ecological Studiesp. 40
Future Approachesp. 42
Study Protocols and Technological Advancesp. 43
Marker Evaluation Studiesp. 44
Acknowledgmentsp. 46
Literature Citedp. 46
Animal Home Ranges and Territories and Home Range Estimatorsp. 65
Definition of Home Rangep. 65
Territoriesp. 70
Estimating Animals' Home Rangesp. 74
Utility Distributionsp. 75
Gridsp. 77
Minimum Convex Polygonp. 79
Circle and Ellipse Approachesp. 80
Fourier Seriesp. 80
Harmonic Mean Distributionp. 81
Fractal Estimatorsp. 82
Kernel Estimatorsp. 86
Home Range Corep. 91
Quantifying Home Range Overlap and Territorialityp. 94
Static Interactionsp. 95
Dynamic Interactionsp. 97
Testing for Territorialityp. 98
Lessonsp. 100
Acknowledgmentsp. 103
Literature Citedp. 103
Delusions in Habitat Evaluation: Measuring Use, Selection, and Importancep. 111
Terminologyp. 112
Methods for Evaluating Habitat Selection, Preference, and Qualityp. 114
Use-Availability Designp. 114
Site Attribute Designp. 117
Demographic Response Designp. 118
Problems with Use-Availability and Site Attribute Designsp. 118
Defining Habitatsp. 118
Measuring Habitat Usep. 120
Measuring Habitat Availabilityp. 122
Assessing Habitat Selection: Fatal Flaw 1p. 127
Inferring Habitat Quality: Fatal Flaw 2p. 139
Advantages and Problems of the Demographic Response Designp. 144
Applications and Recommendationsp. 147
Acknowledgmentsp. 153
Literature Citedp. 153
Investigating Food Habits of Terrestrial Vertebratesp. 165
Conventional Approaches and Their Limitationsp. 166
Direct Observationp. 166
Lead Animalsp. 167
Feeding Site Surveysp. 167
Exclosuresp. 170
Postingestion Samplesp. 170
Evaluating the Importance of Specific Foods and Preyp. 175
Use, Selection, or Preference?p. 175
Availability Versus Abundancep. 175
Cafeteria Experimentsp. 176
Innovationsp. 176
Improvements on Lead Animal Studiesp. 176
Use of Isotope Ratiosp. 177
Experimental Manipulationsp. 177
The Role of Foraging Theory in Understanding Food Habitsp. 179
Lessonsp. 181
Sample Resolution and Information Obtainedp. 181
Improving Sample Resolution and Information Contentp. 182
Literature Citedp. 183
Detecting Stability and Causes of Change in Population Densityp. 191
Detection of Density Dependencep. 193
Analysis of Time Series of Densityp. 193
Analysis of Data on Mortality or Survivalp. 196
Detection of Delayed Density Dependencep. 199
Detection of Causes of Population Changep. 201
Key Factor Analysisp. 201
Experimental Manipulationp. 205
Conclusionsp. 208
Literature Citedp. 209
Monitoring Populationsp. 213
Index-Abundance Relationshipsp. 214
Types of Indicesp. 214
Index-Abundance Functionsp. 215
Variability of Index-Abundance Functionsp. 217
Improving Index Surveysp. 220
Spatial Aspects of Measuring Changes in Indicesp. 221
Monitoring Indices Over Timep. 222
Power Estimation for Monitoring Programsp. 223
Variability of Indices of Animal Abundancep. 224
Sampling Requirements for Robust Monitoring Programsp. 227
Setting Objectives for a Monitoring Programp. 228
Conclusionsp. 229
Acknowledgmentsp. 232
Appendix 7.1p. 233
Literature Citedp. 247
Modeling Predator-Prey Dynamicsp. 253
Modeling Approaches for Predator-Prey Systemsp. 254
Noninteractive Modelsp. 255
True Predator-Prey Modelsp. 260
Stochastic Modelsp. 269
Autoregressive Modelsp. 270
Fitting the Model to Datap. 273
Bayesian Statisticsp. 273
Best Guess Followed by Adaptive Managementp. 273
Choosing a Good Modelp. 275
How Much Detail?p. 275
Model Validationp. 277
Recommendationsp. 279
Remember the Audiencep. 279
Conclusionp. 281
Acknowledgmentsp. 281
Literature Citedp. 282
Population Viability Analysis: Data Requirements and Essential Analysesp. 288
Qualitative Observations About Population Persistencep. 290
Generalitiesp. 290
Contradictionsp. 292
Sources of Variation Affecting Population Persistencep. 293
No Variationp. 293
Stochastic Variationp. 293
Demographic Variationp. 295
Temporal Variationp. 297
Spatial Variationp. 300
Individual Variationp. 300
Process Variationp. 303
Components of a PVAp. 303
Direct Estimation of Variance Componentsp. 305
Indirect Estimation of Variance Componentsp. 312
Bootstrap Approachp. 313
Basic Population Model and Density Dependencep. 314
Incorporation of Parameter Uncertainty into Persistence Estimatesp. 319
Discussionp. 322
Conclusionp. 325
Literature Citedp. 327
Measuring the Dynamics of Mammalian Societies: An Ecologist's Guide to Ethological Methodsp. 332
Social Dynamicsp. 332
Contextp. 334
Why Study Social Dynamics?p. 335
Evolution of Socialityp. 335
Conservation Applicationsp. 335
Understanding Ourselvesp. 336
How to Describe Social Dynamicsp. 337
Action, Interaction, and Relationshipsp. 337
Social Networksp. 338
Social Structure, from Surface to Deepp. 339
Behavioral Parametersp. 340
The Boutp. 340
Stationarityp. 343
The Ethogramp. 343
Beware Teleologyp. 345
Classifications of Behavioral Interactionsp. 347
Methods for Behavioral Measurementp. 362
Identifying the Individualp. 362
Sampling and Recording Rulesp. 364
Ad Libitum Samplingp. 365
Focal Samplingp. 365
Time Samplingp. 366
Techniques for Behavioral Measurementp. 368
Analysis of Observational Datap. 369
Statistical Rationalityp. 370
Matrix Facilities: Analyzing Sequential Datap. 371
Lag Sequential and Nested Analysisp. 374
Searching for a Behavioral Pattern (Markov Chain)p. 375
Predictability of Behaviorp. 376
Sequences Through the Mistp. 378
Acknowledgmentsp. 380
Literature Citedp. 380
Modeling Species Distribution with GISp. 389
Terminologyp. 391
Habitat Definitions and Usep. 392
General Structure of GIS-Based Modelsp. 396
Literature Reviewp. 401
Modeling Issuesp. 403
Clear Objectivesp. 403
Assumptionsp. 405
Spatial and Temporal Scalep. 408
Data Availabilityp. 412
Validation and Accuracy Assessmentp. 413
Discussionp. 422
Conclusionsp. 424
Acknowledgmentsp. 425
Notesp. 425
Literature Citedp. 426
Indexp. 435
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780231113410
ISBN-10: 0231113412
Series: Methods and Cases in Conservation Science
Audience: Professional
For Ages: 22+ years old
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 464
Published: 1st June 2000
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 22.71 x 15.19  x 2.49
Weight (kg): 0.65
Edition Number: 2
Edition Type: Revised