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Regeneration of Plants in Arid Ecosystems Resulting from Patch Disturbance : Geobotany - Yitzchak Gutterman

Regeneration of Plants in Arid Ecosystems Resulting from Patch Disturbance


Hardcover Published: 31st March 2001
ISBN: 9780792367253
Number Of Pages: 246

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The main subject of this book is the interaction between diggings created by porcupines when consuming geophytes, and their influences on annual and perennial vegetation in a desert biome. The accumulation of run-off water in diggings and depressions made by animals increases the carrying capacity of these microhabitats in the desert biome.
The accumulation of run-off water does not only benefit the natural vegetation; a system of human-made depressions can be evolved to increase the catchment of the run-off water that is typical to many desert habitats, and can lead to run-off agriculture in such areas.
This book will be of interest to anyone working in the fields of development of deserts from the ecological point of view, water resources, soil protection and erosion, plant ecophysiology and settlement, and agronomy. It will be helpful to students, researchers, teachers, and anyone interested in any of these areas.

Prefacep. xiii
Acknowledgmentsp. xv
The Desert Biomep. 1
The Negev Desert of Israel: location, rains and phytogeographic regionsp. 1
Shrubs and Annualsp. 6
Geophytes and Hemicryptophytes (Perennial Plants)p. 7
Annual Plantsp. 9
Porcupines in the Negev Desert and the Karoo Deserts of South Africap. 10
The Influence of Ibex Wallows on the Vegetationp. 11
Amounts and distribution of rain in the Negev Desert highlandsp. 11
Rains and runoff waterp. 12
Rain and Water Infiltration in the Soilp. 12
Desert Cryptogamic Crust, Runoff Water and Soil Erosionp. 14
Slope Angle and Runoffp. 15
Depressions, Micro-Topography, Runoff, Seed Accumulation and Seed Germinationp. 15
Evaporation rates, relative humidity and dewp. 16
Seasonal temperaturesp. 17
The temperature on the soil surface and in depressions as a regulator for post maturation and germination of seedsp. 17
Temperatures on the soil surface and in simulated porcupine diggings during the yearp. 18
The Locations of the Micro Sensorsp. 18
Temperatures During Days With Rainp. 18
Temperatures in the digging in comparison with the soil surface (locations 1 & 2) during a day with rain and one day laterp. 19
Temperatures in the diggings and in soil 10 cm below the soil surface (Locations 2 & 4)p. 20
Temperatures on soil surface and southern slope (Locations 1 & 3)p. 20
Temperatures on a Hot Day ("Hamsin")p. 20
Temperatures on the matrix in comparison with in the digging (Locations 1 & 2)p. 20
Temperatures in the diggings and in soil 10 cm below the soil surface (Locations 2 & 4)p. 21
Temperatures on soil surface and southern slope (Locations 1 & 3)p. 21
Soil Temperatures During the Hot Period of the Yearp. 21
Temperatures on the matrix in comparison with in the digging (Locations 1 & 2)p. 21
Temperatures in the diggings and in soil 10 cm below the soil surface (Locations 2 & 4)p. 24
Temperatures on the soil surface and southern slope (Locations 1 & 3)p. 24
Soil Temperatures During the Shortest Dayp. 24
Temperatures at Time of First Efficient Rainfall In 1996/1997 Seasonp. 26
Evaporation rates, temperatures and minimum amounts of rain for germinationp. 26
The dynamics of depression filling by soil particles in different habitatsp. 29
Influence of the filling of the diggings by soil and organic matter on water and seed accumulation, seed germination and seedling establishmentp. 29
Depressions as wind traps for the accumulation of organic matter and seeds. The 'treasure' effectp. 31
Strategies of seed dispersal and the efficiency of the strategy of mucilaginous seeds of some common annuals of the Negev that adhere to the soil crust to delay collection by antsp. 32
Porcupine diggings and their influences on the vegetation in the Negev Desert highlandsp. 36
Ibex wallows and their influences on the annual vegetation in the Negev Desertp. 37
Hazeva Research Areap. 38
Small animal disturbancesp. 39
Ant disturbancesp. 39
Isopods (Hemilepistus reaumuri) and porcupine diggings as a source of erodible soilp. 39
Footprints in muddy loess as long term depressionsp. 40
Main habitats of the Central Negev and their influence on vegetation and porcupine activityp. 40
Inter-relations and ecological significance of diggings and open burrow systemsp. 41
Diggingsp. 41
Ecology and Open Burrow Systems in Deserts and Arid Environmentsp. 43
Diggings and Consumption of Subterranean Plant Organsp. 43
The porcupine and its habitatp. 12
The influences of porcupine activity on species of geophytes and hemicryptophytesp. 43
Plants That Are Destroyed by Porcupine Consumption and Renewed by Seed Germination in the Porcupine Digging (Group 1)p. 52
Colchicum tunicatump. 52
Bellevalia desertorump. 61
Erodium crassifoliump. 65
Plant Species Partially Consumed that Are Renewed Vegetatively in the Porcupine Digging (Group 2)p. 68
Bellevalia eigiip. 69
Tulipa systolap. 72
Malabaila secaculp. 75
Scorzonera papposap. 78
Leontice leontopetalump. 80
Plants Occasionally Totally Consumed and Renewed by Seed Germination in Porcupine Diggings (Group 3)p. 80
Tulipa polychromap. 80
Allium rothiip. 81
Gynandriris sisyrinchiump. 82
Plants Occasionally Partially Consumed and Renewed in Diggings (Group 4)p. 83
Urginea undulatap. 83
Asphodelus ramosusp. 83
Anemone coronariap. 83
Plant Species Rarely Consumed and Very Few of Them Found in Porcupine Diggings (Group 5)p. 84
Scilla hanburyip. 84
Narcissus tazettap. 84
Sternbergia clusianap. 87
Colchicum richiip. 90
Plant Species Found in Porcupine Diggings But not Yet Observed as Being Consumed by Porcupinesp. 91
Ixiolirion tataricump. 91
Eryngium creticump. 93
Ranunculus asiaticusp. 93
Crocus damascenusp. 93
Iris regis-uzziaep. 93
Allium pallensp. 94
Ornithogalum trichophyllump. 94
Ornithogalum narbonensep. 95
Leopoldia longipesp. 95
Seasons in Which the Subterranean Organs of Different Geophytes and Hemicryptophytes Are Consumed and Reappear in the Diggingsp. 95
Group 1p. 96
Group 2p. 97
Group 3p. 97
Groups 4 and 5p. 97
Habitat and Site Distribution of Geophytesp. 97
Strategies of Consumption: The Percentage of Porcupine Diggings and Plant Consumption in Patches of Different Species of Geophytes and Hemicryptophytesp. 98
The Dynamics of Filling-in of Diggingsp. 99
Long term filling-inp. 100
Intermediate term filling-inp. 100
Short term filling-inp. 101
Diggings, Filling-in and Their Influence on the Vegetationp. 101
Porcupines and the damage they cause to agricultural crops in desert areasp. 102
The digging of the African porcupine in desertsp. 102
Gazelles dig for geophytesp. 102
Ibex wallowsp. 104
Sand partridges and geophyte consumptionp. 104
Subterranean herbivorous rodent activity and its influence on geophytesp. 104
The ecological interrelations between porcupine consumption strategies and the survival of geophytes and hemicryptophytes in the Negev Desert highlandsp. 105
Annuals in Porcupine Diggings and Ibex Wallows in the Negev Desert Highlandsp. 107
The annual plant species and their occurrencep. 107
Annuals and perennials in the Negev Desert environmentp. 109
Perennials and the Negev Desert Environmentp. 109
Life Form Diversity and Rain Amountsp. 109
Annuals Occurring in Small Depressionsp. 109
Depressions as micro-habitats in a desert biomep. 110
Depressions as Seed Trapsp. 110
The shape, depth and direction of diggingp. 113
Distances between diggings and patchesp. 114
The structure of the bottom of the digging, plant remnants and orientationp. 114
Influence of the topography and the plant or stone cover near the diggingp. 114
Protected aerial and soil seed banks located in the diggingsp. 114
The Water Content in Diggings and the Occurrence of Annualsp. 117
Topography, Locations and Seedling Numbersp. 119
General eventsp. 119
Particular plant species diversity in diggings in comparison with the matrixp. 119
Diggings as Favourable Micro-Habitats for Annualsp. 120
Digging depth, shape, topography, location and habitat, the species that are consumed and the emergence of annualsp. 122
The succession of annual plants in porcupine diggings - a system of disturbance and the stages of recoveryp. 124
Changes in Annual Plant Numbers Per Unit Area in the Diggingsp. 125
Changes in Plant Biomassp. 128
Plant Competition and Changes in Seed Yieldp. 129
Changes in Species Diversityp. 129
Changes in Plant Species Dominancep. 129
Density of annuals and species diversity in porcupine diggings along a watershed according to runoff water gradientsp. 130
The influences of four artificial digging densities and slope directions on annual plant density in three growing seasonsp. 137
Estimate of Seed Numbers in a Diggingp. 137
Plant Densityp. 138
Plant Biomassp. 139
Effect on Biomass of Slope Direction and Position of Digging in a Patchp. 139
Slope Direction and Frequency of Occurrence of Annual Plant Species in Diggings and on the Matrix in Different Yearsp. 140
On Loess soilp. 140
On stabilized sandp. 141
The influence of depressions made by ibex on the annual vegetation along cliffs of the Zin valley in the Negev Desert highlandsp. 143
Footprints in muddy soil as favourable micro-habitats for annuals in desertsp. 152
Environmental influences on life cycles and survival strategies of annual plant speciesp. 156
Flowering Strategies of Some Winter Annualsp. 156
Daylength, flowering time and life span of facultative long-day plants for floweringp. 156
Soil water content and life span of day-neutral plants for floweringp. 157
Phenotypic Plasticity Effects on Germination During Seed Development and Maturationp. 157
Daylength influencesp. 157
Position effectp. 158
Seed Post Maturation Temperatures on the Soil Surface or in Depressions, and the Regulation of Germination During the Hot and Dry Summersp. 166
Seed Dispersal Strategies and Massive Seed Consumption in Desertsp. 169
Subterranean synaptospermic protected inflorescences or propagules and germination in situp. 174
Serotinous seed dispersal strategyp. 175
Dispersal of free mucilaginous seeds and single seed protection in lignified beakp. 179
Mucilaginous seeds that float into depressionsp. 180
Aerial seed bank with serotiny protection strategy followed by soil seed bank with escape strategyp. 185
The decrease in the "treasure effect" by local protected seed banks in depressionsp. 186
Synaptospermic seed protection strategies by lignified dispersal units or inflorescences on lignified dry plantsp. 186
'Escape' seed dispersal strategies and mechanisms of plant species producing large numbers of dust-like seedsp. 187
Escape' seed dispersal of plant species producing tiny mucilaginous seeds that are dispersed by windp. 190
Seed Germination, Diggings and Depressions as Micro Sitesp. 190
Water and germinationp. 191
Temperatures and germination of annuals in depressionsp. 191
The temperatures during the season with rain and the germination of annuals in the Negev Desert highlandsp. 192
Light, seed cover-over and germinationp. 192
Light inhibition of germination and regulation of the germination by the time of the beginning of seed wetting by rain that engenders germinationp. 193
Slow germinating seedsp. 194
Fast germinating seedsp. 194
Intermediate time of seed germinationp. 194
Seedling Drought Tolerancep. 195
Biopedturbation in desertsp. 196
Effects of Human Made Disturbances and Agriculture on Flood and Runoff Water in the Negevp. 199
Influences of human-made disturbances in the soil on annuals in the Negev Desertp. 199
Human made pits and mounds, and desert plant communitiesp. 199
The Soil Water Content of the Pits, Mounds and Matrixp. 201
Plant Densityp. 201
Plant Species Diversityp. 202
Plant Biomassp. 202
Propagule Size and Plant Appearancep. 204
Changes in Number of Plant Species Over Several Yearsp. 204
The amount of seasonal rain and number of plant species in pits, mounds and matrixp. 206
Plant density affected by colonization during the previous yearp. 206
Seed dispersal strategies and plant occurrencep. 206
Conclusionp. 206
From small depressions to runoff agriculture using flood and runoff water in the Negevp. 206
Prehistoric Backgroundp. 207
Ancient Terraces in Wadis Using Flood Water for Agriculturep. 208
Flood and Runoff Agriculturep. 209
Runoff Water Agriculture in Macro-Catchments in Ancient Nabatean Family Farms in Wide Valleysp. 209
Runoff Agriculture on Moderate Loessial Hill Slopes in Micro-Catchments (Negarin)p. 210
Flood Water Agriculture in Valleys Along Wadi Banks Using By-Pass Channels from the Wadip. 213
Conclusionp. 213
Referencesp. 217
Plant Indexp. 233
Subject Indexp. 237
Animals and Insect Indexp. 243
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780792367253
ISBN-10: 0792367251
Series: Geobotany
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 246
Published: 31st March 2001
Publisher: Springer
Country of Publication: NL
Dimensions (cm): 25.4 x 17.8  x 2.54
Weight (kg): 1.61