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Reference and Computation : An Essay in Applied Philosophy of Language - Amichai Kronfeld

Reference and Computation

An Essay in Applied Philosophy of Language

By: Amichai Kronfeld, John Searle (Foreword by)

Paperback Published: 19th August 1990
ISBN: 9780521399821
Number Of Pages: 208

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This book deals with a major problem in the study of language: the problem of reference. The ease with which we refer to things in conversation is deceptive. Upon closer scrutiny, it turns out that we hardly ever tell each other explicitly what object we mean, although we expect our interlocutor to discern it. Amichai Kronfeld provides an answer to two questions associated with this: how do we successfully refer, and how can a computer be programmed to achieve this? Beginning with the major theories of reference, Dr Kronfeld provides a consistent philosophical view which is a synthesis of Frege's and Russell's semantic insights with Grice's and Searle's pragmatic theories. This leads to a set of guiding principles, which are then applied to a computational model of referring. The discussion is made accessible to readers from a number of backgrounds: in particular, students and researchers in the areas of computational linguistics, artificial intelligence and the philosophy of language will want to read this book.

List of figuresp. xi
Forewordp. xiii
Prefacep. xix
Methods and scopep. 1
Internal and external perspectivesp. 2
Referring as planningp. 7
Philosophical foundationsp. 13
Summary of Chapter 1p. 15
The descriptive approachp. 17
The problem of referencep. 17
The descriptive research programp. 20
Objectionsp. 26
The referential/attributive distinctionp. 26
Away with meaningsp. 28
In praise of singular propositionsp. 30
The status of de re beliefsp. 32
Identification reconsideredp. 33
Motivationp. 33
Summary of Chapter 2p. 45
First stepsp. 47
Donnellan's distinction(s)p. 48
Having a particular object in mindp. 50
A three-tiered model of referringp. 57
Individuating setsp. 58
Referring intentionsp. 60
Choice of referring expressionsp. 61
Donnellan's distinction: final chordp. 62
Summary of Chapter 3p. 65
Referring intentions and goalsp. 68
Communication intentionsp. 68
The literal goal of referringp. 71
The discourse purpose of referringp. 75
Summary of Chapter 4p. 82
Conversationally relevant descriptionsp. 85
Speaker's reference and indirect speech actsp. 86
Functional and conversational relevancep. 91
Descriptions as implicaturesp. 97
Recognizing conversational relevancep. 100
Speaker's assertionp. 101
Extensional and intensional justificationp. 102
The meaning of "must"p. 106
Nonassertives and indefinite descriptionsp. 110
Summary of Chapter 5p. 113
Thoughts and objectsp. 116
The essential indexicalp. 117
The pragmatics of belief reportsp. 123
A conflict of interestp. 127
The shortest spy revisitedp. 129
Causality and vividnessp. 132
Individuating sets and the descriptive viewp. 134
Summary of Chapter 6p. 137
Computational modelsp. 141
General principlesp. 141
A Prolog experimental systemp. 144
Formalizing referring effectsp. 149
Mutual individuationp. 150
Speech acts and rationalityp. 156
Referring and rationalityp. 167
Summary of Chapter 7p. 172
Referencesp. 175
Indexp. 181
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780521399821
ISBN-10: 0521399823
Series: Studies in Natural Language Processing
Audience: Professional
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 208
Published: 19th August 1990
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Country of Publication: GB
Dimensions (cm): 22.8 x 15.2  x 1.2
Weight (kg): 0.31