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Rapid Prototyping : Laser-based and Other Technologies - Patri K. Venuvinod

Rapid Prototyping

Laser-based and Other Technologies

Hardcover Published: 30th November 2003
ISBN: 9781402075773
Number Of Pages: 390

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Since the dawn of civilization, mankind has been engaged in the conception and manufacture of discrete products to serve the functional needs of local customers and the tools (technology) needed by other craftsmen. In fact, much of the progress in civilization can be attributed to progress in discrete product manufacture. The functionality of a discrete object depends on two entities: form, and material composition. For instance, the aesthetic appearance of a sculpture depends upon its form whereas its durability depends upon the material composition. An ideal manufacturing process is one that is able to automatically generate any form (freeform) in any material. However, unfortunately, most traditional manufacturing processes are severely constrained on all these counts. There are three basic ways of creating form: conservative, subtractive, and additive. In the first approach, we take a material and apply the needed forces to deform it to the required shape, without either adding or removing material, i. e. , we conserve material. Many industrial processes such as forging, casting, sheet metal forming and extrusion emulate this approach. A problem with many of these approaches is that they focus on form generation without explicitly providing any means for controlling material composition. In fact, even form is not created directly. They merely duplicate the external form embedded in external tooling such as dies and molds and the internal form embedded in cores, etc. Till recently, we have had to resort to the 'subtractive' approach to create the form of the tooling.

Prefacep. xi
Acknowledgmentsp. xvii
Introductionp. 1
The Importance of Being Rapidp. 1
The Nature of RP/Tp. 6
History of RPp. 13
The State of RP/T Industryp. 21
Materials Basicsp. 25
Atomic Structure and Bondingp. 25
Ceramicsp. 31
Polymersp. 33
Nature of Polymersp. 33
Free Radical Polymerizationp. 36
Cationic Polymerizationp. 38
Thermoplastic and Thermosetting Polymersp. 39
Polymer Structuresp. 41
Properties of Polymersp. 42
Degradation of Polymersp. 47
Powdered Materialsp. 48
Types of Powdersp. 48
Compaction and Sintering of Powdersp. 49
Compositesp. 52
Lasers for RPp. 57
The Principle of Laserp. 57
The Nature of Lightp. 57
Emission Radiationp. 59
Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission Radiationp. 60
Laser Systemp. 63
Laser Beam Characteristicsp. 65
Laser Beam Controlp. 69
Types of Lasers Used in RPp. 71
Reverse Engineering and Cad Modelingp. 75
Basic Concept of Reverse Engineeringp. 75
Digitizing Techniques for Reverse Engineeringp. 78
Mechanical Contact Digitizingp. 79
Optical Non-Contact Measurementp. 81
CT Scanning Methodp. 91
Data Pre-processing for Surface Reconstructionp. 96
Model Representationp. 98
Basic Geometric Featuresp. 98
General Algebraic Surfacesp. 98
Parametric Surfacesp. 99
Subdivision Surfacesp. 101
Other Approaches and Recommendationsp. 102
B-Spline Based Model Reconstructionp. 103
Parametrization of Measured Pointsp. 103
Knots Allocationp. 105
Least Squares Fittingp. 107
Nurbs Based Model Reconstructionp. 110
A Two-Step Linear Approachp. 112
Numerical Algorithms for Weights Identificationp. 115
Other Approaches for Model Reconstructionp. 119
Basic Geometric Featuresp. 119
General Algebraic Surfacesp. 119
Subdivision Surface Fittingp. 120
Surface Local Updatingp. 121
Related Work and General Strategiesp. 122
Pre-Processing Steps for Surface Local Updatingp. 123
Computing Updated Control Pointsp. 124
Examples on Model Reconstructionp. 125
Parametrization for Surface Reconstructionp. 126
B-Spline Surfacesp. 127
NURBS Surfacesp. 129
Subdivision Surfacesp. 130
Surface Local Updatingp. 132
Data Processing for Rapid Prototypingp. 135
Introductionp. 135
Cad Model Preparationp. 140
Data Interfacing for Rapid Prototypingp. 144
STL Interface Specificationp. 144
STL Data Generationp. 147
STL Data Manipulationp. 149
Alternative RP interfacesp. 151
Part Orientation and Support Generationp. 152
Factors Affecting Part Orientationp. 152
Various Models for Part Orientation Determinationp. 153
The Functions of Part Supportsp. 158
Support Structure Designp. 159
Automatic Support Structure Generationp. 162
Model Slicing and Contour Data Organizationp. 165
Model Slicing and Skin Contour Determinationp. 165
Identification of Internal and External Contoursp. 169
Contour Data Organizationp. 171
Direct and Adaptive Slicingp. 173
Identification of Peak Featuresp. 174
Adaptive Layer Thickness Determinationp. 178
Skin Contours Computationp. 180
A Selective Hatching Strategy for RPp. 185
Tool Path Generationp. 188
Stereolithography (SL)p. 195
The Stereolithography (SL) Processp. 195
Part Building Using SLp. 195
Post-build Processesp. 197
Pre-build Processesp. 198
Photo-Polymerization of SL Resinsp. 199
SL Polymersp. 199
Radical Photo-polymerizationp. 200
Cationic Polymerizationp. 204
Vinylethers and Epoxiesp. 204
Developments in SL Resinsp. 205
Absorption of Laser Radiation by the Resinp. 207
Beam Size and Positioning over the Resin Surfacep. 207
Laser Scanning Patternsp. 208
Total Exposure from a Single Laser Scanp. 208
Total Exposure of Interior Resin Layersp. 210
Shape of a Cured Strandp. 211
Cure Depth and Widthp. 212
Multi-layer Part Building, Overcure, and Undercurep. 214
Recoating Issuesp. 216
Recoating Cyclep. 216
Resin Level Controlp. 220
Gap Controlp. 221
Curing and Its Implicationsp. 222
Degree of Curing and 'Green Strength'p. 222
Effects During Post-curingp. 225
Part Quality and Pocess Planningp. 227
Shrinkage, Swelling, Curl and Distortionp. 227
Surface Deviation and Accuracyp. 231
Build Styles and Decisionsp. 235
Build-time and Build-costp. 238
Functional Prototyping using SLp. 240
Other Laser Lithography Systemsp. 242
Selective Laser Sintering (SLS)p. 245
The Principle of SLSp. 245
Indirect and Direct SLSp. 249
Powder Structuresp. 249
Indirect SLS using Coated Powdersp. 250
Direct SLS using Mixed Powders and LPSp. 254
Modeling of SLSp. 258
Modeling of Material Propertiesp. 258
Energy Input Sub-modelp. 263
Heat Transfer Sub-modelp. 266
Sintering Sub-model and Solutionp. 268
Post-Processingp. 272
Process Accuracyp. 275
Other RP Systemsp. 279
Selective Laser Cladding (SLC)p. 279
Laminated Object Manufacturing (LOM)p. 281
Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM)p. 288
3D Printing and Desktop Processesp. 294
Shape Deposition Manufacturing (SDM)p. 300
Vacuum Castingp. 303
Electroformingp. 304
Freeze Castingp. 305
Contour Craftingp. 306
3D Weldingp. 307
CNC Machining and Hybrid Systemsp. 308
Rapid Toolingp. 311
Classification of RT Routesp. 312
RP of Patternsp. 313
Indirect RTp. 316
Indirect Methods for Soft and Bridge Toolingp. 316
Indirect Methods for Production Toolingp. 322
Direct RT Methods for Soft and Bridge Toolingp. 324
Direct RT Methods for Production Toolingp. 325
Other RT Approachesp. 327
Applications of RPp. 329
Heterogeneous Objectsp. 330
Assembliesp. 332
Mems and Other Small Objectsp. 333
Medicinep. 337
Miscellaneous Areas Involving Artp. 340
Referencesp. 345
Indexp. 377
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9781402075773
ISBN-10: 1402075774
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 390
Published: 30th November 2003
Publisher: Springer-Verlag New York Inc.
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 23.5 x 15.5  x 3.18
Weight (kg): 1.66