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Rangeland Ecology And Management - Harold F. Heady

Rangeland Ecology And Management

Paperback Published: 11th November 1999
ISBN: 9780813337999
Number Of Pages: 540

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Over the last two decades the science of range management, like many other resource disciplines, has embraced and integrated environmental concerns in the field, the laboratory, and policy. "Rangeland Ecology and Management" now brings this integrated approach to the classroom in a thoroughly researched, comprehensive, and readable text. The authors discuss the basics of rangeland management--including grazing and practical management of animals and vegetation--and place those basics within the context of decision making for damaged land, riparian and water conservation, multiple use, and modeling. Concepts such as succession, stability, and range condition are examined and their effects discussed. Fire is considered as an environmental factor. Appendixes provide scientific and common names of range plants and animals. These and many other issues crucial to the understanding of successful range management combine to make the finest text for upper-level undergraduates now available.

Prefacep. xv
Grazing Ecology
Rangeland Conservationp. 1
Rangeland Definedp. 1
Range Management Definedp. 2
The Rangeland Ecosystemp. 4
The Grazing Factorsp. 8
Literature Citedp. 11
Defoliationp. 13
Coevolution of Plants and Animalsp. 14
Definitionsp. 15
Determining Effects of Defoliationp. 17
Effects of Defoliation on Plant Morphologyp. 20
Literature Citedp. 25
Physiological Effects of Defoliationp. 27
The Cycle of Nonstructural Carbohydratesp. 27
TNC Production and Plant Growthp. 28
Stimulation by Clippingp. 29
Defoliation and Competitionp. 30
Defoliation and Overgrazingp. 30
Other Nutritive Componentsp. 31
Yield and Vigor Effects of Defoliation During Growthp. 31
Defoliation Effects After Plant Maturityp. 34
Evaluation of Defoliation Practicesp. 34
Literature Citedp. 36
Palatability, Preference, and Selective Defoliationp. 39
Expressions of Selectivityp. 40
Methods of Studying Selectivityp. 43
Palatability Factorsp. 45
Preference Factorsp. 49
Vegetational Responses to Selective Grazingp. 52
Literature Citedp. 53
Physical Effects of Grazing Animalsp. 59
Animal Movementsp. 59
Direct Effects on Plantsp. 60
Cryptogamic Soil Crustsp. 63
Effects on Soilp. 63
Desirable Trampling Effectsp. 67
Effects of Soil Compaction on Vegetationp. 67
Evaluation of Physical Effectsp. 68
Literature Citedp. 69
Energy Flow and Nutrient Cyclingp. 72
Energy Capturep. 72
Energy Flowp. 73
Management by Energy Flowp. 73
Nutrient Cyclingp. 74
The Nitrogen Cyclep. 80
The Sulfur Cyclep. 81
Cycles of Phosphorus and Potassiump. 83
Management Based upon Mineral Cyclingp. 84
Literature Citedp. 85
Redistribution of Minerals by Plants and Animalsp. 88
Redistribution by Plantsp. 88
Redistribution by Large Herbivoresp. 91
Redistribution by Other Animalsp. 92
Mineral Build-up Due to Livestock Feedingp. 93
Management Based on Mineral Distributionsp. 94
Literature Citedp. 95
Distribution of Plants by Animalsp. 97
Active Transportp. 97
Ingestion and Spread of Fruitsp. 99
Passive Transportp. 101
Management Implicationsp. 102
Effectiveness of Plant Dispersal by Animalsp. 104
Literature Citedp. 105
Fire as an Environmental Factorp. 107
Prehuman Sources of Firep. 108
The Evolution of Tolerance to Firep. 108
Fire-Type and Fire Speciesp. 109
Adaptations of Plant Species to Burningp. 110
Effects of Fire on Soilp. 111
Effects of Fire on Animalsp. 114
Effects of Fire on Plantsp. 114
Vegetational Responses to Firep. 116
Fire as a Regenerative Stimulantp. 119
Literature Citedp. 120
Rangeland Synecologyp. 123
Seven Groups of Vegetational Changep. 123
Vegetational Change and Stabilityp. 132
Range Condition and Trendp. 140
New Directions in Range Condition Assessmentp. 143
Livestock as a Tool to Manage Range Conditionp. 145
Literature Citedp. 149
Grazing Management
Numbers of Animalsp. 155
Concepts and Definitionsp. 156
Production per Hectare Versus per Animalp. 162
Literature Citedp. 166
Utilization of Foragep. 169
Utilization Definedp. 169
Determination of Forage Utilizationp. 170
Adjustment of Animal Numbers to Forage Supplyp. 182
Literature Citedp. 184
Animal Distributionp. 188
Factors Influencing Animal Distributionp. 189
Consequences of Faulty Animal Distributionp. 193
Practices to Lessen Animal Concentrationsp. 194
Literature Citedp. 206
Mixed Species Grazingp. 209
Definitionp. 209
Attitudes Toward Animalsp. 210
Mixed Game Animalsp. 212
Introduction of Exotic Range Animalsp. 213
Exchange Ratios Among Animal Speciesp. 216
Forage and Animal Combinationsp. 218
Cycles of Animals and Habitatsp. 223
Literature Citedp. 225
Mixed Species Managementp. 227
Objectives of Habitat Managementp. 228
Harvestable Numbersp. 228
Animal Capture and Handlingp. 230
Game Croppingp. 231
Game Ranchingp. 233
Game and Livestock Ranchingp. 234
Management of Mixed Speciesp. 235
Literature Citedp. 243
Seasonal Managementp. 246
Seasonal Suitabilityp. 246
Range Readinessp. 248
Yearly Cyclesp. 250
Managing Within the Cyclesp. 252
Needed Informationp. 255
Manipulation of Grazing Periodp. 255
Literature Citedp. 256
Grazing Plansp. 258
Objectives of Seasonal Grazing Plansp. 258
History of Grazing Plansp. 259
Terminology of Seasonal Grazing Treatmentsp. 260
Types of Grazing Plansp. 263
Operation of Grazing Plans Within the Annual Forage Cyclesp. 276
Literature Citedp. 277
Responses to Seasonal Grazing Plansp. 280
Vegetational Responsesp. 280
Livestock Responsesp. 282
Soil Responses to Grazing Plansp. 286
Determination of Responsesp. 287
Other Benefits from Grazing Plansp. 289
Wildlife Responsesp. 290
Positive Responses to Rotation Schedulesp. 291
Precautions in Using Rotation Schedulesp. 293
Literature Citedp. 294
Vegetation Management
Modification of Vegetationp. 301
The Problem of Undesirable Plantsp. 301
Kinds of Undesirable Rangeland Plantsp. 302
Demands for a Clean Environmentp. 304
Ecological Integrity of Rangeland Managementp. 305
The Vegetationp. 305
Ecological Tactics for Vegetation Managementp. 306
Toward Flexibility for the Futurep. 308
Literature Citedp. 308
Mechanical Control of Rangeland Plantsp. 310
Objectivesp. 310
Specific Sites and Problemsp. 311
The Method, Time, and Intensity of Applicationp. 311
Methods of Mechanical Plant Controlp. 312
Debris Arrangementsp. 316
Soil Disturbancesp. 317
Plant Killp. 317
Herbage Increase After Brush Removalp. 318
Costs of Mechanical Brush Controlp. 319
Appearance of the Altered Landscapep. 319
Literature Citedp. 321
Chemical Control of Rangeland Plantsp. 323
Approval of Herbicidesp. 323
Major Chemicals Used as Rangeland Herbicidesp. 324
Applicationp. 327
Hazardsp. 328
Responses of Rangeland Plant Communities to Herbicidesp. 330
Literature Citedp. 332
Prescribed Fire in Rangeland Managementp. 335
Fire Characteristicsp. 335
Fire Behaviorp. 337
Responses to Burning During Certain Seasonsp. 341
Temporary or Permanent Effects?p. 341
Objectives in the Use of Firep. 342
Prescribed Burningp. 346
Reluctance to Use Prescribed Firep. 359
Literature Citedp. 359
Biological Controlp. 363
Practicesp. 364
Riskp. 365
Successes and Problemsp. 365
Grazing Animalsp. 370
Developing Plant Resistancep. 371
The Future of Biological Controlp. 371
Literature Citedp. 372
Seeding of Rangelandsp. 374
Deciding to Seedp. 374
The Seeding Operationp. 382
Regional Seeding Practicesp. 391
Literature Citedp. 394
Rangeland Fertilizationp. 396
Widespread Fertilizer Problemsp. 396
Responses to Fertilizationp. 399
Is Rangeland Fertilization Profitable?p. 405
Management of Fertilized Areasp. 406
Literature Citedp. 407
Soil and Water Conservationp. 411
Rangeland Soil Conditionsp. 411
The Erosion Processp. 412
Recognition of Erosionp. 415
Erosion Control with Coverp. 416
Mechanical Structures to Control Water Erosionp. 418
Sand Controlp. 421
Windbreaks and Shelterbeltsp. 422
Water Harvesting Practicesp. 425
Literature Citedp. 431
Managing Rangeland Complexity
Reclamation of Damaged Rangelandp. 435
Overlapping Termsp. 436
Goalsp. 436
Reclamation in the Ecosystem Contextp. 437
The Reclamation Process on Mine Spoilp. 439
Rangeland Roadsp. 447
Literature Citedp. 449
Riparian Areas and Pollution: Best Management Practicesp. 452
Definition of Riparianp. 452
Riparian Conditionsp. 453
Grazing Management of Riparian Zonesp. 455
Mechanical Structures to Improve Riparian Habitatsp. 458
Successful Riparian Managementp. 458
Pollutionp. 458
Best Management Practices (BMP)p. 461
Literature Citedp. 463
Multiple-Usep. 466
Changes in Land Usesp. 467
Multiple-Use Principles and Characteristicsp. 468
Multiple-Use Practices and Managementp. 469
Selling a Multiple-Use Management Programp. 471
Experimental Stewardship Programp. 472
Coordinated Resource Management Planning (CRMP)p. 473
Summaryp. 474
Literature Citedp. 474
Planning for Rangeland Managementp. 476
Planningp. 477
The Operating Ecosystemp. 477
Selecting the Parts of a Range Improvement Programp. 479
Intensity of the Practicep. 480
Selecting Rangeland Productsp. 481
Summaryp. 482
Literature Citedp. 483
Decision Support Systemsp. 484
Multiprocess Modelsp. 486
Combining Rangeland Resource Modelsp. 489
Precautions in Applying Models and Simulationp. 490
Accumulation of Data-Setsp. 490
Issues and Values of Modelingp. 490
Literature Citedp. 491
Scientific and Common Names of Plantsp. 493
Scientific and Common Names of Animalsp. 505
Indexp. 511
About the Book and Authorsp. 521
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780813337999
ISBN-10: 0813337992
Audience: Tertiary; University or College
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 540
Published: 11th November 1999
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 22.23 x 15.24  x 3.18
Weight (kg): 0.82
Edition Number: 1
Edition Type: New edition

Earn 203 Qantas Points
on this Book