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Radioactive Aerosols, 12 : Volume 12 - Constantin Papastefanou

Radioactive Aerosols, 12

Volume 12

Hardcover

Published: 1st January 2008
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Whenever radioactivity is released to the atmosphere, for example by the detonation of nuclear weapons or the testing of nuclear weapons or from nuclear reactor accidents that fraction of it which remains airborne for more than a few hours is liable to be attached to aerosol particles. The resulting radioactive aerosols are carried by atmospheric mixing processes until they settle out or are scavenged by precipitation. The radiation exposure pathway of maximum concern to humans is by inhalation of aerosols and their deposition in the respiratory tract. In this context, it is important to note that radioactive aerosols are commonly of natural origin alos. In particular, the associated radionuclides can be of natural terrestrial origin, such as the decay products of radon gas, or they can e cosmogenic, such as beryllium-7. The exposure of miners of uranium and other ores and minerals to radon and its aerosol-borne decay products is of major significance. The book describes the formation of aerosols, their aerodynamic size distribution, their atmospheric residence time, their sampling and measurement, the range of radioactive aerosols found and studied thus far, including man-made nuclides and radon decay products and their interaction with man, including deposition in the lung and subsequent health effects.
* Learn first hand from a recognised expert in the field
* Keep informed and up to date on all topics related to the development of radioactive aerosal
* Equip yourself with the knowledge needed for future development, research and innovation

Contributionsp. vii
Forewordp. 1
Atmospheric aerosol particlesp. 3
Introduction and definitionsp. 3
The size distribution of atmospheric aerosol particlesp. 4
Aerosols and radiation: Generation of radioactive aerosolsp. 6
Aerodynamic size distribution of radionuclide-associated aerosol particles (radioactive aerosols)p. 7
Aitken nuclei modep. 7
Accumulation modep. 7
Coarse particle modep. 8
Mechanisms of formation and growth of aerosol particlesp. 8
Coagulation and condensationp. 8
Gas-to-particle conversionp. 8
Referencesp. 9
Radioactive aerosolsp. 11
Introductionp. 11
Radioactive aerosols associated with the cosmic-ray produced radionuclidesp. 11
Beryllium-7 aerosolsp. 12
Radon and thoron decay product aerosolsp. 16
Formation of radon decay product aerosolsp. 16
Diffusivity of radon decay productsp. 18
Attachment of radon decay products to aerosol particlesp. 19
Activity size distributions of the radon product decay aerosolsp. 21
Lead-214 and [superscript 212]Pb aerosol size distributionsp. 21
Lead-210 vs [superscript 214]Pb aerosol size distributionsp. 26
Lead-212 vs sulfate, SO[superscript 2- subscript 4] aerosol size distributionsp. 26
Lead-210, [superscript 7]Be, [superscript 35]S, [superscript 32]P and sulfates, SO[superscript 2- subscript 4] vs [superscript 214]Pb and [superscript 212]Pb aerosol size distributionsp. 27
[alpha]-Recoil model: An explanation for the [superscript 214]Pb shift in the aerosol size distributionsp. 29
Recoil redistribution of [superscript 210]Pb following [superscript 214]Po [alpha]-decayp. 32
Radioactive aerosol particle sizes relative to growth mechanisms of sulfate, SO[superscript 2- subscript 4] aerosolsp. 32
The unattached fraction of radon decay product aerosolsp. 33
Mine aerosolsp. 38
Fission product radionuclide aerosolsp. 40
Radioactive aerosols associated with the operation of high-energy acceleratorsp. 49
Plutonium aerosols due to nuclear weapons testing or nuclear reactor accidentsp. 52
Referencesp. 54
Radioactive nuclides as tracers of environmental processesp. 59
Radioactivity in the environmentp. 59
Atmospheric particle depositionp. 61
Dry depositionp. 61
Wet depositionp. 63
Resuspensionp. 66
Air-to-vegetation transfer of radionuclides associated with submicron aerosolsp. 67
Referencesp. 68
Residence time of tropospheric aerosols in association with radioactive nuclidesp. 71
Residence time of aerosol particlesp. 71
Residence time of tropospheric aerosol particles associated with the cosmic ray produced [superscript 7]Bep. 73
Residence time of tropospheric aerosol particles associated with the radon decay product radionuclides [superscript 210]Pb, [superscript 210]Bi, [superscript 210]Po and the fission product radionuclides [superscript 89]Sr, [superscript 90]Sr, and [superscript 140]Ba and their activity ratiosp. 75
Residence time of tropospheric aerosol particles associated with the fission product radionuclides [superscript 89]Sr, [superscript 90]Sr, [superscript 140]Ba and their activity ratiosp. 79
Residence times of sulfate aerosols in the atmospherep. 80
Referencesp. 82
Radioactive particles and human subjectsp. 85
Introductionp. 85
Radioactive dose from inhalation of radon decay product aerosolsp. 85
Deposition of radioactive aerosol particles in the lungp. 102
Risk assessment due to inhalation of radon decay product aerosolsp. 106
Referencesp. 110
Aerosol sampling and measurement techniquesp. 113
Introductionp. 113
Cascade impactorsp. 116
Inertial impactorsp. 117
Andersen cascade impactorsp. 121
1 ACFM ambient cascade impactorp. 123
Low-pressure cascade impactorp. 124
Four-stage low-pressure cascade impactorp. 127
High volume cascade impactorp. 128
Activity size distribution of radioactive aerosol particlesp. 129
Online [alpha]-impactorp. 130
A micro-orifice uniform deposit cascade impactor (MOUDI impactor)p. 135
Particle trap impactorp. 139
The diffusion battery method for aerosol particle size determinationp. 141
Condensation particle counter batteryp. 146
The Mercer-style impactorp. 148
Berner-type impactorp. 150
Dichotomous samplerp. 151
Compact multistage cascade impactorp. 153
K-JIST 5-stage cascade impactorp. 154
Referencesp. 157
Appendicesp. 161
Subject Indexp. 169
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780080440750
ISBN-10: 0080440754
Series: Radioactivity in the Environment
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 186
Published: 1st January 2008
Publisher: Elsevier Science & Technology
Country of Publication: GB
Dimensions (cm): 24.0 x 16.5  x 1.37
Weight (kg): 0.45
Edition Number: 1