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Radar Reflectivity of Land and Sea : Radar Library - Maurice W. Long

Radar Reflectivity of Land and Sea

Radar Library

Hardcover

Published: 31st March 2001
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This state-of-the-art edition of a radar classic brings the reader up-to-date on new developments in clutter measurement and modelling, and features a wealth of new information. Authored by a recognized expert in the field, the book covers everything from basic concepts of radar reflectivity to space-time clutter amplitude and bistatic clutter. New radar engineers should find this to be a valuable, all-encompassing, well-illustrated survey of radar reflectivity fundamentals. Veteran engineers and systems designers should appreciate the book's new coverage of: effects of frequency agility; spatial averages for terrain; graphs from GIT clutter models; land and sea echo at extremely low grazing angles; compound statistics including the K and the Rayleigh modulated by Wiebull distributions; super sea echo events and sea spikes; bistatic land and sea clutter; and more.

Prefacep. xv
Referencesp. xviii
Acknowledgmentsp. xxi
Remote Sensing by Radarp. 1
State of the Artp. 1
Overviewp. 1
Radar Capabilities at the End of World War IIp. 6
Strip Maps and Side-Looking Radarp. 13
Spaceborne Radarp. 16
Surface Effects and Emerging Techniquesp. 21
Effects of Surface Characteristicsp. 21
Modern Techniques for Sensing Surface Characteristicsp. 32
Referencesp. 39
Basic Concepts and Definitionsp. 43
Radar Reflectivityp. 43
The Radar Equation for Free Spacep. 44
Radar Cross Section of Targetsp. 47
Normalized Radar Cross Sectionp. 48
Coherence and Incoherence of a Scattered Fieldp. 50
Rayleigh Roughness Criterion, Specular Reflection, and Scatteringp. 51
Far Field of Radar Targetsp. 56
Effects of Radar Frequency Changesp. 57
Echo Fluctuationsp. 58
The Earth and Its Effects on Radarp. 59
Effects of the Earth's Curvature and Refractionp. 59
The Effect of Interference on a Targetp. 63
Nature of the Sea Surface and Wind Speed Statisticsp. 66
Propagation over the Horizonp. 70
Attenuation and Scattering by the Atmospherep. 73
Referencesp. 75
Polarization, Depolarization, and Theories of Scatteringp. 79
Polarization and Depolarizationp. 79
Polarization Scattering Matrixp. 79
Relationships Between Linear and Circular Polarizationsp. 82
A Randomly Oriented Dipolep. 85
A Dihedral Reflectorp. 87
Depolarization Caused by an Ensemble of Randomly Oriented Dipolesp. 88
Theories for Radar Cross Section of Rough Surfacesp. 91
Simple Models Including the Constant Gamma Modelp. 91
Classical Interference Theoryp. 96
The Tangent Plane Approximationp. 97
Very Rough Surfacesp. 97
The Facet Modelp. 98
The Slightly Rough Planar Surfacep. 98
Ripples on Waterp. 100
Vegetation Modelp. 101
Composite Surfacesp. 103
Doppler Spectra of Sea Echop. 104
Referencesp. 106
Effects of the Earth's Surfacep. 111
Fundamental Conceptsp. 111
Effects of the Earth's Curvature and Refractionp. 112
Reflections from a Rough, Spherical Earthp. 115
Reflection Coefficient for a Flat, Smooth Earthp. 118
Effect of a Flat, Smooth Earth on Target Echop. 125
Echo from Targets That Are Above a Flat, Smooth Earthp. 129
Range and Depression Angle Dependencies for a Small Object Above a Smooth Earthp. 129
Vertically Extensive Objects Above a Smooth Earthp. 132
Propagation Factors for Circular, Horizontal, and Vertical Polarizations Above a Smooth Earthp. 135
Propagation Factors for a Cloud of Scatterers Above a Smooth Earthp. 138
Effects of Surface Roughness on Forward-Scattered Fieldsp. 140
Reflection Coefficient for Rough Surfacesp. 140
Shadowingp. 145
Depolarizationp. 146
Echo from Targets That Are Above a Physically Rough Earthp. 147
Variation of Echo Power with Rangep. 148
Range at Which Idealized R[superscript -4] and R[superscript -8] Curves Intersectp. 150
Relative Cross Sections for Circular Polarizationsp. 150
A Cloud of Scatterersp. 152
Effects of the Diffuse Component on Target Echop. 154
Multipath Effects on Echo from Land and Seap. 156
Effects of Multipath Interferencep. 157
Multipath Interference and Shadowingp. 158
Referencesp. 159
Echo Fluctuations and Spectrap. 163
Introductionp. 163
Spectra and Autocorrelation Functionsp. 163
Amplitude Statisticsp. 165
Ground Echo Fluctuationsp. 172
Nature of Ground Echoesp. 172
Temporal Amplitude Distributions for Terrainp. 175
Spatial Amplitude Statisticsp. 182
Noncoherent Spectra and Autocorrelation Functions of Landp. 192
Coherent Land Doppler Spectrap. 203
Lincoln Laboratory Spectral Modelp. 211
Power in Fast and Slow Land Spectrap. 213
Bragg Spectra from Inland Waterp. 214
Concluding Remarks on Ground Echo Fluctuationsp. 216
Visual Observations of Sea Echop. 219
Characteristics Revealed by an A-Scope Displayp. 219
Results from Fixed Range Samplingp. 221
Subjective Radar/Optical Comparisons and Anomaliesp. 224
Observations of Bishop and of Lewis and Olinp. 225
Sea Echo Statistics and Spectrap. 228
Amplitude Distributionsp. 229
Spectra Observed with Noncoherent Radarp. 241
Autocorrelation Functionsp. 242
Noncoherent Spectra and Relationships with Sea Surface Mechanismsp. 248
Relative Power in Fast and Slow Fluctuationsp. 250
Phase Coherent Doppler Spectrap. 254
Super Eventsp. 267
Sea Spikesp. 268
Concluding Remarks on Sea Echo Fluctuations and Spectrap. 274
Space-Time Clutter Amplitude Statisticsp. 277
Compound Distributionsp. 277
The K-Distributionp. 279
Rayleigh Modulated by Weibull Statisticsp. 281
Referencesp. 283
Average and Median Cross Sectionsp. 291
Introductionp. 291
General Characteristics of [sigma degree]p. 292
Differences Between Average and Median Valuesp. 294
Smooth Surfaces and Small Grazing Anglesp. 295
Classical Interference Effectp. 299
Problems Associated with Measuring [sigma degree]p. 301
Radar Cross Section for Landp. 303
Nature of [sigma degree] for Landp. 303
Sample [sigma degree] Land Measurementsp. 303
Terrain Within Near Vertical and Plateau Regionsp. 332
Ulaby and Dobson Tables for Terrainp. 336
Terrain Within Plateau and Low Grazing Angle Regionsp. 340
Terrain at Extremely Low Grazing Anglesp. 345
Concluding Remarks on Average Land Echop. 350
Radar Cross Section for the Seap. 352
Nature of [sigma degree] for the Seap. 352
Range Dependence at Small Grazing Anglesp. 354
Dependence on Grazing Anglep. 358
Grazing Angle Dependence at Low Frequenciesp. 366
Nathanson Sea Clutter Tablesp. 372
Extremely Low Grazing Anglesp. 374
Dependence of [sigma degree] on Polarizationp. 382
Dependence of [sigma degree] on the Wind and Seap. 384
GIT Sea Clutter Modelsp. 399
Wavelength Dependence for the Seap. 409
A Two-Scatterer Sea Clutter Modelp. 420
Oil Slicks and Rain on Waterp. 424
Concluding Remarks on Average Sea Echop. 425
Referencesp. 427
Interdependence of Polarization Characteristicsp. 435
Introductionp. 435
General Observationsp. 435
Coherency, Statistical Independence, and Correlationp. 437
A Simplified Polarization Model for Rough Terrainp. 441
Use of the Polarization Model for the Moonp. 444
Polarization Model with Different Propagation Factorsp. 450
Echo from Land, Principally Treesp. 451
Amplitude Fluctuationsp. 452
Interdependence of Amplitude and Phase of Orthogonally Polarized Echoesp. 453
Average and Median Value Data, and Depression Angle Dependencep. 455
Relative Magnitude of Coherent and Incoherent Scattering from Treesp. 459
Sea Echop. 463
Fluctuations of Orthogonally Polarized Componentsp. 463
Averages and Medians for Linear Polarizationp. 468
Interdependence of Averages and Medians for Linear and Circular Polarizationsp. 471
Coherent and Incoherent Scattering from the Seap. 479
Referencesp. 480
Bistatic Land and Sea Clutterp. 483
Bistatic RCSp. 483
Effective Illuminated Areap. 485
Depolarization and Reduction in RCSp. 487
In-Plane ([phis] = 0 and 180[degree]) Clutterp. 488
The Barton Modelp. 490
Ulaby et al. Indoor Measurementsp. 493
Out-of-Plane, Small Grazing Angle Datap. 499
Referencesp. 502
Statistical Parametersp. 505
Basicsp. 505
Probability Density Functions and Distributionsp. 507
Normal or Gaussian Distributionp. 507
Rayleigh Distributionp. 507
Ricean Distributionp. 508
Lognormal Distributionp. 509
Weibull Distributionp. 510
Chi-Square, Gamma, and Weinstock Distributionsp. 511
Standard Deviation of 10 log [sigma] When [sigma] Is Rayleigh Power Distributedp. 511
Relationship Between 10 log([characters not reproducible]igma]/[sigma subscript m]) and Its Variance When [sigma] Is Lognormalp. 513
Referencesp. 514
About the Authorp. 515
Indexp. 517
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9781580531535
ISBN-10: 1580531539
Series: Radar Library
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 560
Published: 31st March 2001
Publisher: Artech House Publishers
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 23.4 x 15.6  x 3.0
Weight (kg): 0.95
Edition Number: 3
Edition Type: Revised