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Radar Reflectivity of Land and Sea : Radar Library - Maurice W. Long

Radar Reflectivity of Land and Sea

Radar Library

Hardcover Published: 19th January 1983
ISBN: 9780890061305
Number Of Pages: 424

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This state-of-the-art edition of a radar classic brings you up-to-date on new developments in clutter measurement and modeling and features a wealth of new information not found in other currently available books. Authored by a recognized expert in the field, the book covers everything from basic concepts of radar reflectivity to space-time clutter amplitude and bistatic clutter.

Prefacep. xiii
Acknowledgmentsp. xv
Forewordp. xvii
Remote Sensing by Radarp. 1
State of the Artp. 1
Overviewp. 1
Radar Capabilities at End of World War IIp. 5
Strip Maps and Side-looking Radarp. 11
Surface Effects and Emerging Techniquesp. 14
Effects of Surface Characteristicsp. 14
Emerging Techniquesp. 21
Basic Concepts and Definitionsp. 31
Radar Reflectivityp. 31
The Radar Equation for Free Spacep. 33
Radar Cross Section of Targetsp. 34
Normalized Radar Cross Sectionp. 35
Rayleigh Roughness Criterionp. 36
Coherence and Incoherence of a Scattered Fieldp. 37
Far Field of Radar Targetsp. 39
Relationship between the Autocorrelation Function and the Power Density Spectrump. 40
Fluctuation Statisticsp. 42
The Earth and Its Effects on Radarp. 47
Effects of the Earth's Curvature and Refractionp. 47
The Effect of Interference on a Targetp. 49
Nature of the Sea Surface and Wind Speed Statisticsp. 50
Propagation Over the Horizonp. 54
Attenuation and Scattering by the Atmospherep. 57
Polarization, Depolarization and Theories of Scatteringp. 63
Polarization and Depolarizationp. 63
Polarization Scattering Matrixp. 63
Relationships between Linear and Circular Polarizationsp. 66
A Randomly Oriented Dipolep. 68
A Diplane Reflectorp. 70
Depolarization Caused by an Ensemble of Randomly Oriented Dipolesp. 72
Theories for Radar Cross Section of Rough Surfacesp. 74
Simplified Modelsp. 75
Classical Interference Theoryp. 77
The Tangent Plane Approximationp. 78
Very Rough Surfacesp. 78
The Facet Modelp. 79
The Slightly Rough Planar Surfacep. 79
Ripples on Waterp. 81
Vegetation Modelp. 84
Composite Surfacesp. 86
Doppler Spectra of Sea Echop. 87
Effects of the Earth's Surfacep. 95
Fundamental Conceptsp. 95
Effects of the Earth's Curvature and Refractionp. 95
Reflection Coefficient and Divergence Factorp. 98
Reflection Coefficient for a Flat, Smooth Earthp. 98
Effect of Terrain on Target Echo Strengthp. 102
Echo from Targets That are Above a Flat, Smooth Earthp. 106
Range and Depression Angle Dependence for a Small Object above a Smooth Earthp. 111
Vertically Extensive Objects above a Smooth Earthp. 113
Propagation Factors for Circular, Horizontal and Vertical Polarizations above a Smooth Earthp. 116
Propagation Factors for a Cloud of Scatterers above a Smooth Earthp. 119
Effects of Surface Roughness on Forward Scattered Fieldsp. 121
Reflection Coefficient for Rough Surfacesp. 121
Shadowingp. 125
Depolarizationp. 126
Echo from Targets That are Above a Physically Rough Earthp. 127
Variation of Echo Power with Rangep. 127
Range at Which Idealized R[superscript -4] and R[superscript -8] Curves Intersectp. 128
Relative Cross Sections for Circular Polarizationsp. 130
A Cloud of Scatterersp. 132
Effects of the Diffuse Component on Target Echop. 134
Interference Effects on Echo from Land and Seap. 135
Effects of Forward Scatter on [sigma][degree] for the Seap. 135
Local Interferencep. 137
Comparisons between the Classical Interference Effect and Local Interferencep. 138
Echo Fluctuationsp. 143
Ground Echo Fluctuationsp. 145
Nature of Ground Echoesp. 145
Amplitude Distributions for Terrianp. 146
Frequency Spectra and Autocorrelation Functions for Land Echop. 156
Visual Observations of Sea Echop. 168
Characteristics Revealed by an A-Scope Displayp. 170
Results from Fixed Range Samplingp. 172
Subjective Radar and Optical Comparisonp. 176
Anomaliesp. 177
Sea Echo Statistics and Spectrap. 178
Amplitude Distributionsp. 178
Spectra Observed with Noncoherent Radarp. 189
Autocorrelation Functionsp. 191
Frequency Spectra and Relationships with Sea Surface Mechanismsp. 196
Relative Power in Fast and Slow Fluctuationsp. 200
Phase Coherent Doppler Spectrap. 202
Average and Median Cross Sectionsp. 211
Introductionp. 211
General Characteristics of [sigma][degree]p. 211
Differences between Average and Median Valuesp. 212
Planar Surfaces with Roughness Comparable to a Wavelength or Lessp. 214
Very Small Incidence Anglesp. 215
Near Vertical Incidencep. 218
Classical Interference Effectp. 219
Radar Cross Section for Landp. 220
Nature of [sigma][degree] for Landp. 220
Average [sigma][degree] for Various Terrainsp. 221
Median [sigma][degree] for Various Terrainsp. 245
Dependence on Incidence Angle and Polarizationp. 247
Wavelength Dependence for Landp. 255
Discussion on [sigma][degree] for Landp. 256
Radar Cross Section for the Seap. 260
Nature of [sigma][degree] for the Seap. 260
Range Dependence at Small Incidence Anglesp. 261
Dependence on Incidence Anglep. 267
Incidence Angle Dependence at Low Frequenciesp. 275
Dependence of [sigma][degree] on Polarizationp. 279
Dependence of [sigma][degree] on the Wind and Seap. 282
Sea Echo Predictionp. 293
Wavelength Dependence for the Seap. 296
Oil Slicksp. 306
Discussion on [sigma][degree] for the Seap. 306
Interdependence of Polarization Characteristicsp. 313
Introductionp. 313
General Observationsp. 313
Coherency, Statistical Independence, and Correlationp. 315
A Simplified Polarization Model for Rough Terrainp. 318
Use of the Polarization Model for the Moonp. 321
Echo from Land, Principally Treesp. 326
Amplitude Fluctuationsp. 327
Interdependence of Amplitude and Phase of Orthogonally Polarized Echoesp. 328
Average and Median Value Data, and Depression Angle Dependencep. 331
Relative Magnitude of Coherent and Incoherent Scattering from Treesp. 335
Sea Echop. 338
Fluctuations of Orthogonally Polarized Componentsp. 338
Averages and Medians for Linear Polarizationp. 342
Interdependence of Averages and Medians for Linear and Circular Polarizationp. 346
Coherent and Incoherent Scattering from the Seap. 354
Appendicesp. 359
Author Indexp. 375
Subject Indexp. 380
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780890061305
ISBN-10: 0890061300
Series: Radar Library
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 424
Published: 19th January 1983
Publisher: Artech House Publishers
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 22.9 x 15.2  x 2.6
Weight (kg): 0.79
Edition Number: 2
Edition Type: Revised