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Radar Engineer's Sourcebook : Radar Library - William C. Morchin

Radar Engineer's Sourcebook

Radar Library

Paperback

Published: 19th December 1992
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A distillation of technical material culled from key radar publications and conferences that have occurred over the past five years, this book provides access to the answers to common design problems with "designer crib sheets". William Morchin has also written "Airborne Early Warning Radar".

Prefacep. xv
Antennasp. 1
Generalp. 1
Effective Antenna Aperturep. 1
Aperture Efficiencyp. 1
Effective Beamwidth of Combined Transmit and Receive Beamsp. 3
Measurement Criteriap. 3
Polarization Lossp. 4
Axial Ratio of Circularly Polarized Antennas with Errorsp. 4
Power Densityp. 6
Antenna Radar Cross Sectionp. 6
Number of Beams in Spherep. 9
Approximation to Fresnel Integralp. 9
Arraysp. 9
Rule of Thumbp. 9
Element Separation and Element Spacingp. 9
Number of Antenna Elements in an Arrayp. 10
Array Gainp. 10
Bandwidthp. 10
Optimum Tilt for Elevation-Scanned Phased Arraysp. 11
Design Considerations for Low Sidelobe Microstrip Arraysp. 11
Digital Beamformingp. 13
Investment Costp. 14
Antenna Gain and Patternsp. 14
Gainp. 14
Pattern Calculation Procedurep. 16
Radomesp. 25
Reflector Systemsp. 25
Beam Squint in Parabolic Reflector Antennasp. 25
Phase Efficiency (Gain Loss) Due to Quadratic Phase Errorp. 26
Gain Loss Due to Random Surface Deviationsp. 26
Gain Loss Due to Surface, Jitter, and Pointing Errorsp. 28
Periodic Error Effectsp. 28
Array Radar Systemsp. 37
Introductionp. 37
Transmit-Receive Modules for Array Radarp. 37
Transmit-Receive Module Characteristicsp. 37
Example of TR Module Power Consumptionp. 48
Temperature Distribution of Arrayp. 48
Computer Processing Requiredp. 49
Clutterp. 55
Generalp. 55
Distributionsp. 55
Surface Scatteringp. 56
Clutter Area for Radarp. 61
Clutter Spectral Spreadp. 62
Ground Clutterp. 62
Land Reflectivity Modelsp. 62
Spectral Spreadp. 70
Discretesp. 70
Sea Clutterp. 70
Description of Waves and Beachesp. 70
Sea Reflectivity Modelsp. 74
Rain Effects on Reflectivityp. 76
Sea-Spike Clutterp. 76
Sea Clutter Spectral Spreadp. 76
Volume Clutterp. 80
Rain Backscatterp. 80
Aurora Clutter Characteristicsp. 81
Cross Sectionp. 89
Definition and Statisticsp. 89
Definitionp. 89
Statisticsp. 89
RCS of Generic Shapesp. 93
Flat Surfacesp. 93
Volumesp. 95
Paraboloidp. 96
Conep. 97
Cylinderp. 97
Tubular Cylinderp. 101
Tubular S-bend Cylinderp. 101
Circular Ogivep. 101
Prolate Ellipsoid of Revolutionp. 101
One-Dimensional Objectsp. 101
RCS of Complex/Unique Shapesp. 110
Airplanes and Helicoptersp. 110
Missilesp. 113
Maritime Vesselsp. 119
Other Objectsp. 119
Low RCS Technologyp. 122
Surface Wave Absorbing Materialsp. 122
Structural Absorbing Materialsp. 123
Detectionp. 131
General Formulasp. 131
Evaluation of Error Function Integralp. 131
Tresholdingp. 132
Required Signal-to-Noise Ratiop. 132
m Detections Out of n Successive Trialsp. 134
Cumulative Probability of Detectionp. 134
Probability of Detecting on or Before a Rangep. 134
Normalized Pcum Curves for Searchp. 134
Reference Curves for Detection Probabilityp. 135
Nonfluctuating and Rayleigh Targetsp. 135
Detection of Chi-square Targets in Clutterp. 175
Detection of Targets in Weibull Clutterp. 181
Detection of Targets in k-distributed Clutterp. 185
Pulse Doppler Systemsp. 193
Introductionp. 193
Resolving Dimensionsp. 193
Chinese Remainder Theorem for Unambiguous Solution of a Range Valuep. 193
Minimum Detectable Velocityp. 193
Resolution of Accelerationp. 194
Doppler Beam Sharpeningp. 194
Ghosts and Number of Operationsp. 195
Electronic Countermeasuresp. 203
Introductionp. 203
Equationsp. 203
Target Signal to Jammer Noise Ratiop. 203
ECCM Improvement Factorsp. 204
Expendablesp. 205
Chaffp. 205
Decoysp. 207
Sidelobe Cancellationp. 208
ESM-Electronic Warfare Support Measuresp. 208
LPI-Low Probability of Interceptp. 208
Instantaneous Frequency Measurement (IFM) Receiver Designp. 209
ECM, ECCM, and ESM Equipmentp. 209
Generalp. 217
Radar and ECM Band Nomenclaturep. 217
Millimeter Wave to Ultraviolet Wavelength Regionsp. 218
Descriptions of Regions of the Growth Curvep. 221
Statistical Descriptorsp. 221
Estimating Rulesp. 222
The -ilitiesp. 222
Inherent Availabilityp. 222
Earth and Satellite Related Subjectsp. 223
Satellite to Ground Range, Angle, and Velocityp. 223
Navigation Equationsp. 224
Aircraft Flightp. 224
Laser Radarp. 229
Introductionp. 229
Direct Detectionp. 229
Signal-to-Noise Ratiop. 229
Coherent Detectionp. 231
Signal-to-Noise Ratiop. 231
Probability of Detectionp. 231
RF Modulationp. 232
Power Conversion Efficiencyp. 232
Signal Processingp. 233
Range Resolution and Doppler Sensitivity Tradeoffp. 233
Propagationp. 233
Measurementp. 239
Ambiguities in Measurementp. 239
Velocity and Range Ambiguitiesp. 239
Angle Measurementp. 240
Antenna Pattern Measurementp. 240
Angle Measurement Accuracy of Conventional Tracking and Search Radarsp. 240
Beam Pointing Accuracy of Wideband Arraysp. 241
RCS Measurementp. 241
Sampling Space for RCS Measurementp. 241
RCS Measurement Accuracy Dependence on Background Levelp. 242
RCS Measurement Accuracy Criteriap. 242
Range and Time Measurementp. 243
Range Correctionp. 243
Variance of Time Delay Estimationp. 244
Ranging with Pseudonoisep. 244
Multipath Delay Profilesp. 244
Noise Figurep. 246
Measuring System Noise Figurep. 246
Meteorological Radarp. 251
Introductionp. 251
Generalp. 251
Radar Equation for Meteorological Radarp. 251
Doppler
Doppler and Range Ambiguityp. 253
Doppler Velocity Distribution of Stormsp. 253
Correlation Time of Weather Featuresp. 253
MTIp. 261
Introductionp. 261
Definitionsp. 261
Finite Impulse Response Filtersp. 262
Binomial FIR MTI Cancellersp. 262
Signal-to-Clutter Improvement for a PDp. 263
Staggered PRFp. 264
A Four-pulse MTIp. 264
An Adaptive 3-pulse MTIp. 265
MTI From a Moving Platformp. 265
Compensation for Clutter Doppler Spreadp. 265
DPCA Enhancement of the Improvement Factorp. 266
Multistatic/Bistatic Radarp. 273
Introductionp. 273
General Radar Equationp. 273
Bistatic Search Equationp. 274
Constant Sensitivity Contoursp. 274
Clutter Cell Areap. 275
Beamwidth Limited Clutter Cell Areap. 275
Range Limited Clutter Cell Areap. 275
Unambiguous Range and PRFp. 276
Target Dopplerp. 276
Range Resolutionp. 277
Doppler Resolutionp. 277
Angle Resolutionp. 277
Target Range Determinationp. 277
Over-the-Horizon Radarp. 283
Introductionp. 283
Target Detection Modelsp. 283
Clutterp. 286
Sea Bragg-line Dopplerp. 286
Sea/Wind Direction Measurementp. 287
Propagationp. 293
Generalp. 293
Upper Frequency Limit of Coaxial Cablep. 293
Absorptionp. 293
Clear Atmospherep. 293
Rainp. 295
Snowp. 298
Fog and Cloudsp. 298
Dustp. 300
Foliagep. 300
Diffractionp. 304
Knife-edge Diffractionp. 304
Diffraction of 4/3 Earthp. 304
Refractionp. 304
Index of Refractivityp. 304
Effective Earth Radiusp. 307
Standard Range-Height-Angle Chartsp. 307
Range Correctionp. 312
Ductingp. 312
Lens-effectp. 313
Scatteringp. 326
Pattern Factorp. 326
Path Length Differencep. 327
Frequency Shift Between Direct and Multipathp. 327
Fluctuationp. 327
Amplitude Fluctuationp. 327
Ionospherep. 328
Correlation Time Through the Ionospherep. 328
Faraday Loss and Rotation Anglep. 328
Radar Equationp. 337
Introductionp. 337
General Equationp. 337
Searchp. 338
Trackp. 338
Specialty Applicationsp. 338
Field Strength and Incident Power Densityp. 339
Tabular Solutionsp. 339
Parameter Valuesp. 344
Sample Loss Budgetsp. 345
Losses Not Found in Other Chaptersp. 346
Resolutionp. 357
Introductionp. 357
Aperture Limited Resolutionp. 357
Superresolutionp. 357
Rational Transfer Function Modelp. 358
Sinusoidal Signal Modelp. 359
Spatial Estimation Using Multiple Antenna Beamsp. 360
Resolution Requiredp. 360
Target Interpretation, Probability of Recognitionp. 360
Search Radarp. 367
Search Equation for Cumulative Probability of Detectionp. 367
Apportionment of Power and Timep. 368
Programmed Time and Powerp. 368
Search Time Savings with Sequential Detectionp. 369
Radar Time Usep. 369
Search Time, Antenna Area, and Target Velocity Tradesp. 369
Target Velocity Resolutionp. 369
Minimum Detectable Target Velocityp. 369
Signal Designp. 375
Generalp. 375
Time-Frequency Hopp. 375
Resolution of a Target Dimensionp. 375
Frequency Modulatedp. 376
Component Phase Errorsp. 376
Digital Generation of Linear FM Waveformsp. 376
Frequency-hopped FM Segmentsp. 376
Doppler Estimation Accuracy with Linear FMp. 376
Phase Codedp. 379
Biphase Codesp. 379
Quadraphase Codes from Biphase Codesp. 379
Polyphase Codesp. 383
Pulse Burstp. 386
Range Determination in High-PRF Pulse-Doppler Radarp. 386
Multiple PRF Ghosting and Probability of Target Visibility in Ambiguous Range Systemsp. 386
Signal Processingp. 391
Introductionp. 391
Target Classification/Recognitionp. 391
Imagingp. 392
Digital Implementation of Signal Processingp. 393
Acoustic Device Implementation for Signal Processingp. 393
Samplingp. 394
Analog to Digital Convertersp. 394
Method for Reducing the Bandwidth of a Sampled Signalp. 394
Data Windowingp. 394
Quadrature Samplingp. 396
Aliasingp. 397
Filteringp. 397
MTIp. 397
FFT/DFTp. 397
Delay-line Processingp. 397
Spectral Estimationp. 398
Correlationp. 398
Pulse Compressionp. 398
Programmed Processingp. 399
FFT Processingp. 399
Adaptive Processingp. 399
Programmed Processingp. 399
General Purpose Processorsp. 399
Special Purpose Processorsp. 399
Hardwired Processorsp. 400
Knowledge-based Processingp. 400
Adaptive Processingp. 400
Antenna Adaptive Processingp. 400
Doppler Related Processingp. 401
Neural Related Processingp. 401
Signals and Noisep. 407
Introductionp. 407
System Temperature and Noise Figurep. 407
Antenna Temperaturep. 408
System Noise Figurep. 411
Device Noise Figurep. 411
Receiver Noise Temperaturep. 411
Receiver Noise Figurep. 411
Noise Figure of a System with Feedbackp. 411
Noise Figure of Low-Noise Amplifiersp. 413
Signal Sourcesp. 414
Phase Noisep. 414
Spurious-Response Suppression in Double-Balanced Mixersp. 420
Intermodulation Products of Amplifiersp. 420
Spurious Levels Due to I-Q Imbalancep. 423
Synthetic Aperture Radarp. 431
Introductionp. 431
Basic Side-Looking SAR Equationsp. 431
Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR)p. 433
SAR with a Rotating Antennap. 434
Bistatic SARp. 434
SAR Processingp. 435
Tracking Radarp. 441
Introductionp. 441
Computer Tracking of Target Positionp. 441
Equations of State for Trackingp. 441
Evolution of Target Track Statusp. 442
Track Performance Predictionp. 443
Track Sampling Timep. 444
Radar Report Angle Errorsp. 445
Transmittersp. 451
Introductionp. 451
Comparisons of Vacuum and Solid-State Electronicsp. 451
Average Power as a Function of Frequency for Tube and Solid-State RF Sourcesp. 451
Efficiency as a Function of Frequency for Tube and Solid-State RF Sourcesp. 457
Growth Rate of Average Power Capabilityp. 460
Weight Factor Comparisonsp. 460
Spurious Noise, and Phase and Frequency Stabilityp. 460
Spurious Noisep. 460
Phase and Amplitude Stabilityp. 461
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780890065594
ISBN-10: 0890065594
Series: Radar Library
Audience: General
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 496
Published: 19th December 1992
Publisher: Artech House Publishers
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 28.0 x 21.0  x 2.5
Weight (kg): 1.11