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Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors : Physics and Applications - Harald Schneider

Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors

Physics and Applications

Hardcover Published: 1st November 2006
ISBN: 9783540363231
Number Of Pages: 248

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Addressed to both students as a learning text and scientists/engineers as a reference, this book discusses the physics and applications of quantum-well infrared photodetectors (QWIPs). It is assumed that the reader has a basic background in quantum mechanics, solid-state physics, and semiconductor devices. To make this book as widely accessible as possible, the treatment and presentation of the materials is simple and straightforward. The topics for the book were chosen by the following criteria: they must be well-established and understood; and they should have been, or potentially will be, used in practical applications. The monograph discusses most aspects relevant for the field but omits, at the same time, detailed discussions of specialized topics such as the valence-band quantum wells.

Introductionp. 1
Physics
Basics of Infrared Detectionp. 5
Blackbody Radiationp. 5
Signal, Noise, and Noise-Equivalent Powerp. 7
Detectivity and Noise-Equivalent Temperature Differencep. 10
Semiconductor Quantum Wells and Intersubband Transitionsp. 13
Quantum Wellsp. 13
Intersubband Transitionsp. 13
Intersubband Transition: More Detailsp. 18
Basic Formulaep. 18
Calculations for a Symmetric Quantum Wellp. 21
Transfer-Matrix Methodp. 27
Corrections to the Intersubband Energy and Lineshapep. 29
Coulomb Interactionp. 29
Many-Particle Effectsp. 31
Further Interactionsp. 34
Band Nonparabolicityp. 36
Intersubband Relaxation and Carrier Capturep. 39
Electron-Phonon Interactionp. 40
Electron-Impurity and Electron-Electron Scatteringp. 41
Photoconductive QWIPp. 45
Dark Currentp. 45
Simple Modelsp. 45
Self-Consistent and Numerical Modelsp. 55
Photocurrentp. 57
Photoconductive Gainp. 57
Detector Responsivityp. 64
Detector Performancep. 65
Detector Noisep. 65
Detectivity and Blip Conditionp. 67
Design of an Optimized Detectorp. 72
THz QWIPsp. 75
Design Considerationsp. 76
Experimental and Discussionp. 77
Photovoltaic QWIPp. 83
General Conceptp. 83
The Four-Zone QWIPp. 85
Transport Mechanism and Device Structurep. 85
Responsivity and Dark Currentp. 88
Noisep. 89
Detectivityp. 92
Time Dependencep. 93
Theoretical Performance of Low-Noise QWIPsp. 94
Optical Couplingp. 97
Simple Experimental Geometriesp. 97
Gratings for Focal Plane Arraysp. 100
Strong Coupling in Waveguides, Polaritons, and Vacuum-Field Rabi Splittingp. 104
Miscellaneous Effectsp. 107
Intersubband Absorption Saturationp. 107
Nonlinear Transport and Optical Effectsp. 109
Extrinsic (Photoconductive) Nonlinearityp. 109
Negative Differential Photoconductivity and Electric Field Domainsp. 115
Intrinsic Nonlinearityp. 121
Asymmetry Caused by Dopant Segregationp. 123
Coherent Photocurrentp. 125
Coherent Control by Optical Fieldsp. 125
Coherent Control Through Potential Offsetsp. 128
Impact Ionization and Avalanche Multiplicationp. 131
Radiation Hardnessp. 135
Related Structures and Devicesp. 139
High Absorption QWIPsp. 139
Absorption Measurementsp. 139
Detector Characteristicsp. 141
Multicolor QWIPsp. 144
Voltage Switched Multicolor QWIPp. 146
Voltage Tuned Multicolor QWIPp. 149
Interband and Intersubband Dual-band Detectorsp. 151
Using the Same Quantum Wellp. 151
Stacked QWIP and PINp. 158
Integrated QWIP-LEDp. 161
Quantum Dot Infrared Photodetectorp. 163
Anticipated Advantages and Current Statusp. 165
Areas for Improvementp. 170
Single Well and Blocked Miniband QWIPsp. 170
Transistors and Monolithic Integrationp. 172
Applications
Thermal Imagingp. 175
Signal, Noise, and Noise-Equivalent Temperature Differencep. 175
Signal Detectionp. 175
Detector Noisep. 177
System Noisep. 178
Thermal Resolutionp. 179
Fixed-Pattern Noise and NETD of an Arrayp. 181
Modulation Transfer Functionp. 183
QWIP Camerasp. 185
Fabrication of QWIP FPAsp. 185
System Integrationp. 187
Camera Performancep. 188
MWIR/LWIR Dual-Band QWIP FPAp. 190
Detector Conceptp. 191
Array Fabrication and FPA Layoutp. 193
Properties of Dual-Band QWIP Test Devicesp. 194
System Integration and Dual-Band QWIP FPA Performancep. 195
Opportunities for QWIP FPAs in Thermal Imagingp. 196
Alternative Architecture and New Functionality of QWIP FPAsp. 199
Dynamics, Ultrafast, and Heterodynep. 203
Dynamic Processes in QWIPsp. 203
Quantum Well Rechargingp. 204
Picosecond Photocurrentp. 208
High Frequency and Heterodyne QWIPsp. 213
Microwave Rectificationp. 213
Heterodyne Detectionp. 216
Two-Photon QWIPp. 220
Equidistant Three-Level System for Quadratic Detectionp. 220
Autocorrelation of Subpicosecond Optical Pulsesp. 223
Externally Switchable Quadratic and Linear Responsep. 225
Conclusions and outlookp. 229
Referencesp. 231
Indexp. 247
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9783540363231
ISBN-10: 3540363238
Series: Springer Series in Optical Sciences
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 248
Published: 1st November 2006
Publisher: SPRINGER VERLAG GMBH
Country of Publication: DE
Dimensions (cm): 23.55 x 16.18  x 1.5
Weight (kg): 0.5