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Quantum Measurement - Vladimir Borisovich Braginsky

Paperback Published: 24th July 1995
ISBN: 9780521484138
Number Of Pages: 212

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This book is an up-to-date introduction to the quantum theory of measurement. Although the main principles of the field were elaborated in the 1930s by Bohr, Schrodinger, Heisenberg, von Neuman, and Mandelstam, it was not until the 1980s that technology became sufficiently advanced to allow its application in real experiments. Quantum measurement is now central to many ultra-high technology developments, such as "squeezed light," single atom traps, and searches for gravitational radiation. It is also considered to have great promise for computer science and engineering, particularly for its applications in information processing and transfer. The book begins with a brief introduction to the relevant theory and goes on to discuss all aspects of the design of practical quantum measurement systems.

Industry Reviews

' ... applies all tools of classical and quantum measurement to the measurement of small forces. The tools include evolution operators, eigenstates, density matrices, correlation functions, noise spectral densities and hetero- and homodyne detection ... the ideas, all subtle, fundamental and useful, are the original work of the authors ... will provide easy-to-understand examples for the quantum mechanics texts of the future, and it will influence the direction of research in quantum mechanics.' Donald Searl, Physics Today

Editor's Forewordp. xiii
Notationp. xvii
Historical introduction: photons and measurements using photonsp. 1
The discovery of photonsp. 2
The wave and particle properties of photonsp. 4
The Heisenberg uncertainty relationsp. 7
When do macroscopic objects behave quantum mechanically?p. 12
Overview of this bookp. 15
The main principles of quantum mechanicsp. 17
The wave functionp. 17
Probabilistic interpretation of the wave functionp. 19
Single measurements and ensembles of measurementsp. 21
Reduction of a quantum statep. 24
von Neumann's postulate of reductionp. 27
Orthogonal measurementsp. 30
Nonorthogonal measurementsp. 32
Back action of the measuring device on the measured objectp. 35
Indirect measurementsp. 38
The two main types of quantum measurementsp. 38
An electron as the quantum probep. 41
Electron probe -- detailed analysisp. 44
Formal description of an indirect measurementp. 46
Quantum nondemolition measurementsp. 50
The standard quantum limit for the energy of an oscillatorp. 50
How can one overcome the standard quantum limit?p. 53
The ponderomotive probe for energyp. 57
Criteria for QND measurementsp. 60
Linear measurementsp. 64
The measurement process and the uncertainty relationp. 64
Measurement accuracy and perturbations for linear measurementsp. 67
Sequences of linear measurementsp. 70
Continuous linear measurementsp. 76
Discrete and continuous measurementsp. 76
Uncertainty relations for continuous linear measurementsp. 77
Uncertainty relations for continuous linear measurements--rigorous analysisp. 82
Linear, quantum 2N-pole systemsp. 84
The spectral representationp. 87
Internal fluctuations of a linear measuring devicep. 89
Nonlinear systems for continuous measurementsp. 93
Fluctuational and dynamical back action of the measuring devicep. 93
Quantum Zeno paradox for exact measurementsp. 95
The equation of motion for the density operator during a continuous monitoringp. 97
Quantum Zeno paradox for approximate measurementsp. 101
Detection of classical forcesp. 105
Aspects of quantum limits for the detection of a classical forcep. 105
Quantum probe oscillatorp. 109
Continuous quantum nondemolition monitoringp. 112
Standard quantum limit for an oscillatorp. 115
Optimal detection of a classical forcep. 118
A probe oscillator coupled to a sensor that continuously monitors its number of quantap. 122
Energetic quantum limitationsp. 125
The energy of the probe and the minimum detectable forcep. 125
Energetic limits on sensitivity: general analysisp. 129
Distinguishing evolutionary paths of a quantum object from each otherp. 132
Devices for measuring small mechanical displacementsp. 136
Parametric transducer for mechanical displacementsp. 136
Capacity transducerp. 139
Fluctuations in a capacity transducer in the stationary regimep. 143
Capacity transducer used to detect weak forces: stationary regimep. 148
Capacity transducer: nonstationary regimep. 151
Frequency upconverterp. 154
Capacity transducer with two-side-band pumpingp. 157
Quantum nondemolition measurements of a resonator's energyp. 160
Review of methods of measurementp. 160
Measuring device based on cubic dielectric nonlinearityp. 162
The role of dissipationp. 165
Resonator coupled to a waveguidep. 167
Nonclassical states of electromagnetic waves as tools for quantum measurementsp. 172
Quantum properties of a traveling electromagnetic wavep. 172
QND measurements of the energy of a traveling electromagnetic wavep. 175
Frequency-anticorrelated quantum statep. 178
Doppler measurements with frequency-anticorrelated photonsp. 180
Statistical properties of a wave packet with a definite number of quantap. 183
Conclusionp. 186
Referencesp. 188
Subject Indexp. 192
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780521484138
ISBN-10: 0521484138
Audience: Professional
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 212
Published: 24th July 1995
Country of Publication: GB
Dimensions (cm): 22.78 x 15.27  x 1.22
Weight (kg): 0.3

Earn 130 Qantas Points
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