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Quantum Computing and Communications - Michael Brooks

Quantum Computing and Communications

By: Michael Brooks (Editor)


Published: 21st May 1999
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We have, in the last few years, radically improved our grasp of the quantum world. Not just intellectually, either: our ability to manipulate real quantum systems has grown in equal measure with our understanding of their fundamental behavior. These two shoots - the intellectual and the practical harnessing of the quantum world - have sprung up at a time when a third shoot - information processing - has also been experiencing explosive growth. These three shoots are now becoming intertwined. Twisted together, our understanding of information processing, quantum theory and practical quantum control make for a strong new growth with enormous potential. One must always be careful about using the word 'revolutionary' too readily. It is, however, difficult to find another word to describe the developments that have been taking place during the second half of the 1990s. In 1986 Richard Feynman, the visionary professor of physics, made a very interesting remark: " ... we are going to be even more ridiculous later and consider bits written on one atom instead of the present 1011 atoms. Such nonsense is very entertaining to professors like me." It is exceptionally unfortunate that Feynman did not live to see this 'nonsense' fully transformed into reality. He, more than anybody, would enjoy the fact that it is now possible to write information onto an atom, or indeed an ion or a photon.

A Wide Perspective
Introductionp. 3
Exploiting the Quantum Worldp. 3
Historical Backgroundp. 5
Worldwide Efforts in QCCp. 6
The Fundamentals of Quantum Informationp. 9
Quantum Computer Sciencep. 17
Introductionp. 17
Algorithms and the Complexity Problemp. 18
The Quantum Computation Answerp. 19
Quantum Algorithmsp. 20
Quantum Logic Gates and Networksp. 21
Obstaclesp. 23
A Workable Solution: Quantum Error Correctionp. 23
Conclusionsp. 24
Experimental Realizationsp. 27
Introductionp. 27
Trapped Ionsp. 27
Nuclear Magnetic Resonancep. 29
Cavity Quantum Electrodynamicsp. 30
Quantum Dotsp. 31
Optical Technologies for Quantum Computing and Communicationsp. 33
Introductionp. 33
Using the Quantum Nature of Lightp. 34
Potentialp. 34
Problemsp. 34
Quantum Noise in Optical Communicationsp. 35
Generic Technologies in Quantum Communicationsp. 35
Nonlinear Opticsp. 36
Cavity Quantum Electrodynamicsp. 36
Operations Performed on Optical Signalsp. 37
Signal Generationp. 37
Detectionp. 38
Attenuationp. 38
Distributionp. 39
Amplificationp. 39
Conclusions: Towards the Second Generationp. 40
Applicationsp. 43
Introductionp. 43
Emerging Technologiesp. 44
Quantum Cryptographyp. 44
Quantum Repeatersp. 44
Quantum Simulatorsp. 45
Metrology and Few Photon Applicationsp. 46
Conclusions: Measuring Progressp. 47
A Note on the Question of Scaling: Decoherence and Error Correctionp. 49
Personal Perspectives
Solid State Quantum Computation: Prospects, Proposals, and Prejudicesp. 53
Information is Physical, But Slipperyp. 59
Nanocircuitry, Defect Tolerance and Quantum Computing: Architectural and Manufacturing Considerationsp. 63
Quantum Computing and NMRp. 71
Quantum Networks and Quantum Algorithmsp. 79
Quantum Cryptographyp. 87
A Perspective for the Future
Realizing the Potential of Quantum Information Processingp. 97
Prospects for Quantum Computingp. 97
Prospects for Special Applicationsp. 98
Quantum Simulationp. 98
Limited Qubit and Reduced-Noise High Precision Applicationsp. 98
Secure Communicationsp. 99
Meeting The Needs of the QIP Fieldp. 99
The Need for Academic Focusp. 100
The Need for Industrial Focusp. 100
The Need for Awarenessp. 101
The Role of Europep. 103
The Pioneering Stagep. 103
Todayp. 104
Multi-Disciplinary or Trans-Disciplinary Nature of the Communityp. 104
The Numbers Involvedp. 104
The Geographical Spreadp. 105
The Industrial Scenep. 105
Summary of the European Scenep. 106
Quantum Computing and Communications: A View from the USAp. 107
Introductionp. 107
What Works Wellp. 108
What Does Not Work So Wellp. 108
NASA/JPLp. 109
Lessons Learned from Experience with NASAp. 111
Opportunities for Europep. 111
Commercializationp. 112
Recommendationsp. 113
Programmatic Recommendationsp. 113
Technology Solutionsp. 113
Quantum Computer Sciencep. 113
Education and Trainingp. 114
Reference materials
Quantum Information Processing: A Brief Overview of Recent Advancesp. 119
Introductionp. 119
The Underlying Physical Systemp. 120
Quantum Bits and Quantum Superpositionsp. 120
Quantum Gatesp. 120
Quantum Parallelismp. 121
Fundamentals of Quantum Informationp. 121
Entanglementp. 121
Quantum Dense Codingp. 122
Quantum Teleportationp. 123
Quantum Cryptographyp. 123
Standard Cryptosystemsp. 123
Quantum Key Distributionp. 124
Quantum Computingp. 125
Quantum Algorithmsp. 125
Grover's Search Algorithmp. 126
Period Finding and Shor's Factorization Algorithmp. 127
Minimum Requirements for any Quantum System to Be a Quantum Computerp. 128
Simulation of Other Quantum Systemsp. 128
Quantum Decoherencep. 129
What is Decoherence?p. 129
Quantum Error Correctionp. 130
Experimental Realizationsp. 131
Systems with Few Degrees of Freedomp. 131
Macroscopic Systemsp. 132
Conclusionsp. 132
Categories and Definitionsp. 137
Definitions and Glossary of Termsp. 137
Definition of Quantum Computing and Communicationsp. 137
Sub-Sector Definitionsp. 138
Some Relevant Termsp. 140
The Disciplines that Contribute to Quantum Information Processingp. 142
The Pathfinder Projectp. 145
Pathfinder Activitiesp. 145
Newslettersp. 145
Database of Active Individuals and Organizationsp. 146
Taxonomy of the Subjectp. 146
Helsinki Conferencep. 146
QIP Reportp. 147
Pathfinder Project Partnersp. 147
A Preliminary QIP Roadmapp. 149
Indexp. 151
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9781852330910
ISBN-10: 1852330910
Audience: General
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 152
Published: 21st May 1999
Publisher: Springer London Ltd
Country of Publication: GB
Dimensions (cm): 23.57 x 15.65  x 1.09
Weight (kg): 0.26