Foreword | p. vii |

Preface | p. xiii |

Acknowledgments | p. xvii |

Emergence and Complexity | p. 1 |

A Quantum Origin of Life? | p. 3 |

Chemistry and Information | p. 5 |

Q-life | p. 6 |

The Problem of Decoherence | p. 9 |

Life as the "Solution" of a Quantum Search Algorithm | p. 11 |

Quantum Choreography | p. 13 |

References | p. 16 |

Quantum Mechanics and Emergence | p. 19 |

Bits | p. 20 |

Coin Flips | p. 20 |

The Computational Universe | p. 22 |

Generating Complexity | p. 25 |

A Human Perspective | p. 28 |

A Quantum Perspective | p. 29 |

References | p. 29 |

Quantum Mechanisms in Biology | p. 31 |

Quantum Coherence and the Search for the First Replicator | p. 33 |

When did Life Start? | p. 33 |

Where did Life Start? | p. 34 |

Where did the Precursors Come From? | p. 35 |

What was the Nature of the First Self-replicator? | p. 36 |

The RNA World Hypothesis | p. 37 |

A Quantum Mechanical Origin of Life | p. 39 |

The dynamic combinatorial library | p. 40 |

The two-potential model | p. 42 |

Decoherence | p. 44 |

Replication as measurement | p. 44 |

Avoiding decoherence | p. 45 |

Summary | p. 47 |

References | p. 47 |

Ultrafast Quantum Dynamics in Photosynthesis | p. 51 |

Introduction | p. 51 |

A Coherent Photosynthetic Unit (CPSU) | p. 53 |

Toy Model: Interacting Qubits with a Spin-star Configuration | p. 58 |

A More Detailed Model: Photosynthetic Unit of Purple Bacteria | p. 63 |

Experimental Considerations | p. 65 |

Outlook | p. 66 |

References | p. 67 |

Modelling Quantum Decoherence in Biomolecules | p. 71 |

Introduction | p. 71 |

Time and Energy Scales | p. 73 |

Models for Quantum Baths and Decoherence | p. 75 |

The spin-boson model | p. 76 |

Caldeira-Leggett Hamiltonian | p. 78 |

The spectral density | p. 79 |

The Spectral Density for the Different Continuum Models of the Environment | p. 80 |

Obtaining the Spectral Density from Experimental Data | p. 82 |

Analytical Solution for the Time Evolution of the Density Matrix | p. 86 |

Nuclear Quantum Tunnelling in Enzymes and the Crossover Temperature | p. 87 |

Summary | p. 90 |

References | p. 91 |

The Biological Evidence | p. 95 |

Molecular Evolution: A Role for Quantum Mechanics in the Dynamics of Molecular Machines that Read and Write DNA | p. 97 |

Introduction | p. 97 |

Background | p. 98 |

Approach | p. 100 |

The information processing power of a molecular motor | p. 102 |

Estimation of decoherence times of the motor-DNA complex | p. 103 |

Implications and discussion | p. 105 |

References | p. 106 |

Memory Depends on the Cytoskeleton, but is it Quantum? | p. 109 |

Introduction | p. 109 |

Motivation behind Connecting Quantum Physics to the Brain | p. 111 |

Three Scales of Testing for Quantum Phenomena in Consciousness | p. 113 |

Testing the QCI at the 10 nm-10 [mu]m Scale | p. 115 |

Testing for Quantum Effects in Biological Matter Amplified from the 0.1 nm to the 10 nm Scale and Beyond | p. 117 |

Summary and Conclusions | p. 120 |

Outlook | p. 121 |

References | p. 121 |

Quantum Metabolism and Allometric Scaling Relations in Biology | p. 127 |

Introduction | p. 127 |

Quantum Metabolism: Historical Development | p. 131 |

Quantization of radiation oscillators | p. 131 |

Quantization of material oscillators | p. 132 |

Quantization of molecular oscillators | p. 133 |

Material versus molecular oscillators | p. 135 |

Metabolic Energy and Cycle Time | p. 136 |

The mean energy | p. 137 |

The total metabolic energy | p. 138 |

The Scaling Relations | p. 140 |

Metabolic rate and cell size | p. 140 |

Metabolic rate and body mass | p. 140 |

Empirical Considerations | p. 141 |

Scaling exponents | p. 142 |

The proportionality constant | p. 144 |

References | p. 144 |

Spectroscopy of the Genetic Code | p. 147 |

Background: Systematics of the Genetic Code | p. 147 |

RNA translation | p. 149 |

The nature of the code | p. 151 |

Information processing and the code | p. 154 |

Symmetries and Supersymmetries in the Genetic Code | p. 156 |

sl(6/1) model: UA+S scheme | p. 158 |

sl(6/1) model: 3CH scheme | p. 161 |

Dynamical symmetry breaking and third base wobble | p. 164 |

Visualizing the Genetic Code | p. 168 |

Quantum Aspects of Codon Recognition | p. 174 |

N(34) conformational symmetry | p. 175 |

Dynamical symmetry breaking and third base wobble | p. 177 |

Conclusions | p. 180 |

References | p. 181 |

Towards Understanding the Origin of Genetic Languages | p. 187 |

The Meaning of It All | p. 187 |

Lessons of Evolution | p. 190 |

Genetic Languages | p. 193 |

Understanding Proteins | p. 195 |

Understanding DNA | p. 201 |

What Preceded the Optimal Languages? | p. 204 |

Quantum Role? | p. 211 |

Outlook | p. 215 |

References | p. 217 |

Artificial Quantum Life | p. 221 |

Can Arbitrary Quantum Systems Undergo Self-replication? | p. 223 |

Introduction | p. 223 |

Formalizing the Self-replicating Machine | p. 225 |

Proof of No-self-replication | p. 226 |

Discussion | p. 227 |

Conclusion | p. 228 |

References | p. 229 |

A Semi-quantum Version of the Game of Life | p. 233 |

Background and Motivation | p. 233 |

Classical cellular automata | p. 233 |

Conway's game of life | p. 234 |

Quantum cellular automata | p. 237 |

Semi-quantum Life | p. 238 |

The idea | p. 238 |

A first model | p. 239 |

A semi-quantum model | p. 242 |

Discussion | p. 244 |

Summary | p. 247 |

References | p. 248 |

Evolutionary Stability in Quantum Games | p. 251 |

Evolutionary Game Theory and Evolutionary Stability | p. 253 |

Population setting of evolutionary game theory | p. 256 |

Quantum Games | p. 256 |

Evolutionary Stability in Quantum Games | p. 261 |

Evolutionary stability in EWL scheme | p. 263 |

Evolutionary stability in MW quantization scheme | p. 268 |

Concluding Remarks | p. 286 |

References | p. 288 |

Quantum Transmemetic Intelligence | p. 291 |

Introduction | p. 291 |

A Quantum Model of Free Will | p. 294 |

Quantum Acquisition of Knowledge | p. 298 |

Thinking as a Quantum Algorithm | p. 300 |

Counterfactual Measurement as a Model of Intuition | p. 301 |

Quantum Modification of Freud's Model of Consciousness | p. 304 |

Conclusion | p. 306 |

References | p. 307 |

The Debate | p. 311 |

Dreams versus Reality: Plenary Debate Session on Quantum Computing | p. 313 |

Plenary Debate: Quantum Effects in Biology: Trivial or Not? | p. 349 |

Nontrivial Quantum Effects in Biology: A Skeptical Physicists' View | p. 381 |

Introduction | p. 381 |

A Quantum Life Principle | p. 382 |

A quantum chemistry principle? | p. 382 |

The anthropic principle | p. 384 |

Quantum Computing in the Brain | p. 385 |

Nature did everything first? | p. 385 |

Decoherence as the make or break issue | p. 386 |

Quantum error correction | p. 387 |

Uselessness of quantum algorithms for organisms | p. 389 |

Quantum Computing in Genetics | p. 390 |

Quantum search | p. 390 |

Teleological aspects and the fast-track to life | p. 392 |

Quantum Consciousness | p. 392 |

Computability and free will | p. 392 |

Time scales | p. 394 |

Quantum Free Will | p. 395 |

Predictability and free will | p. 395 |

Determinism and free will | p. 396 |

References | p. 398 |

That's Life!-The Geometry of [pi] Electron Clouds | p. 403 |

What is Life? | p. 403 |

Protoplasm: Water, Gels and Solid Non-polar Regions | p. 405 |

Van der Waals Forces | p. 407 |

Kekule's Dream and [pi] Electron Resonance | p. 409 |

Proteins-The Engines of Life | p. 413 |

Anesthesia and Consciousness | p. 418 |

Cytoskeletal Geometry: Microtubules, Cilia and Flagella | p. 419 |

Decoherence | p. 423 |

Conclusion | p. 425 |

References | p. 427 |

Quantum Computing in DNA [pi] Electron Stacks | p. 430 |

Penrose-Hameroff Orch OR Model | p. 432 |

Index | p. 435 |

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