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Purpose Clauses : Syntax, Thematics, and Semantics of English Purpose Constructions - Judith K. Jones

Purpose Clauses

Syntax, Thematics, and Semantics of English Purpose Constructions

Hardcover Published: 30th September 1991
ISBN: 9780792314004
Number Of Pages: 263

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The purpose clause is a common fonn of adverbial modification in English. The bracketed phrases below are purpose clauses, and they look and sound unremarkable. We hear and see these things all the time. John came [to play with the children] [to play with] I brought John along Insofar as purpose clauses appear to be adverbial, they frequently occupy a relatively low place on the scale of important things for syntactic theory to address itself to. In this book I assume the theoretical framework that has come to be known as 'Government-Binding' theory (GB), initiated in Chomsky (1981). The general fonn of the analyis of purpose clauses in GB dates roughly from Chomsky (1977). where several kinds of constructions akin to purpose clauses are identified. Within GB. this analysis is so widely accepted that it deserves to be considered the standard theory. This book, then. is about a few syntactically peripheral ell~ments that have enjoyed a relatively long-lived. virtually universally accepted. theoretical treatment What is perhaps an obvious question arises in this context. Why write a GB book about purpose clauses? This book. I hope, will supply an interesting answer. Simply put. purpose clause:;, and related constructions, have various properties that are not accounted for in the standard theory. In this book I propose an alternative analysis of purpose clauses, an analysis from which. I think. more of their properties follow more naturally.

I. Introduction.- 1. Two Theoretical Frameworks.- 1.1. Government-Binding Theory.- 1.1.1. The Subtheories of GB.- 1.1.2. Passive in GB.- 1.2. ?-Theory.- 1.2.1. Argument Assignment.- 1.2.2. ?-Binding.- 1.2.3. The ?-Theory of Passive and Raising.- 1.2.4. The ?-Criterion and the Projection Principle.- 2. Purpose Constructions.- 2.1. Syntax.- 2.1.1. External Syntax.- 2.1.2. Internal Syntax.- 2.2. Semantics.- 2.2.1. Quantification.- 2.2.2. Control.- 2.3. ?-Theory and the Organization of the Grammar.- II. External Syntax.- 1. Distinguishing Purpose Clauses.- 1.1. Obligatory and Nonobligatory Control.- 1.1.1. Williams (1980) and Control.- 1.1.2 PC, IOC, and Control.- 1.1.3. The Thematic Nature of the PC Controller.- 1.2. Unexpected PC Properties.- 1.2.1. Prepositional Phrase Control of OPC.- 1.2.2. SPC and Intransitives.- 1.3. Purpose Clauses and Infmitival Relatives.- 2.Adjunction of IOC and PC.- 2.1. IOC and PC Distributions.- 2.2. IOC, PC, and Recursion.- 2.3. Syntactic Tests.- 2.3.1. Preposing.- 2.3.2. Negation.- 2.3.3. Pseudoclefts.- 2.3.4. Relative Order of IOC and PC.- 2.3.5. VP-Deletion.- 2.3.6. Conjunction.- 3. Purpose Clauses as Adjuncts.- 3.1. The Argument/Adjunct Distinction.- 3.1.1. Semantic Optionality.- 3.1.2. Syntactic Optionality.- 3.1.3. Iterability and Constrained Adjuncts.- 3.2. PC and the Lexicon.- 4. Wh-Extraction.- III. Internal Syntax.- 1. Inside In Order Clauses.- 2. Inside Subject-Gap Purpose Clauses.- 2.1. SPC as VP.- 2.2. Consequences of the VP Analysis of SPC.- 3. Inside Object-Gap Purpose Clauses.- 3.1. The Standard Analysis of OPC.- 3.2. OPC as VP.- 3.2.1. Suppression of the External ?-Role.- 3.2.2. External Projection of Internal ?-Roles.- 3.3. Consequences of the VP Analysis of OPC.- 3.3.1. The SPC Tests.- 3.3.2. Lexical Material in Comp.- 3.33. NP Within NP.- 3.3.4. Parasitic Gaps Within Syntactic Subjects.- 3.3.5. Weak Crossover.- 3.3.6. Long Distance Gaps.- 3.3.7. Parasitic Gaps.- 4. The PP 'Subject' of OPC.- 5. PC and Be.- IV. Easy-Clauses.- 1. Easy-S'.- 2. Easy-Clause = OPC.- 2.1. The VP Tests Revisited.- 2.2. The 'Subject' of EC.- 3. The New Tough Movement.- 3.1. Tough Problems With ?-Marking.- 3.2. Tough Reanalysis.- 3.2.1. Tough Reanalysis and Complex Adjectives.- 3.2.2. Tough Extractions.- 4. Related Constructions.- 4.1. Pretty to Look Ar. Object Deletion.- 4.2. Too/Enough Complements.- 4.3. An Easy Pan to Fry Eggs In: Mixed Relatives.- 4.4. A Fool to Love Mary.- V. Quantification.- 1. Quantification and Predication.- 2. Quantifying PRO arb.- 2.1. Epstein (1984) and PROarb.- 2.2. Lebeaux (1984) and PROarb.- 3. Control via Empty Operators.- 3.1. Generalized Quantificational Control.- 3.1.1. PRO as Anaphor _.- 3.1.2. Empty Operator as ?-Anaphor.- 3.1.3. Clark (1990) and Control.- 3.2. PC, EC, and Quantificational Control.- 3.2.1. The Implicit Argument Quantifier.- 3.2.2. Adverbs of Quantification.- 3.3. Licensing Conditions on Empty Operators.- 4. Conclusion.- VI. Control.- 1. A Semantics for Control.- 1.1 ?-Roles and Control.- 1.2 Augmentation of an Argument Structure.- 2. What is a ?-Role?.- 2.1. With Respect to a Predicate.- 2.2. Beyond the Predicate.- 3. Control of Purpose Clauses.- 3.1. Purpose Clauses.- 3.2. Control of Posessor-PP and Easy-Clauses.- 3.2.1. Possessor-PP.- 3.2.2. Easy-Clauses.- 4. Generalized Control.- 4.1. Farkas (1988) and Complement Control.- 4.1.1. Controller Choice.- 4.1.2. Thematic Matching.- 4.2. Thematic Matching in the Grammar.- 5. Obligatory Control and the Argument/Adjunct Distinction.- VII. Conclusion.- Index of Names.- Index of Subjects.

ISBN: 9780792314004
ISBN-10: 079231400X
Series: STUDIES IN LINGUISTICS AND PHILOSOPHY
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 263
Published: 30th September 1991
Publisher: Springer
Country of Publication: NL
Dimensions (cm): 23.5 x 15.88  x 2.54
Weight (kg): 0.54