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Pseudorandomness and Cryptographic Applications : Princeton Computer Science Notes - Michael Luby

Pseudorandomness and Cryptographic Applications

Princeton Computer Science Notes

Paperback

Published: 28th January 1996
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A pseudorandom generator is an easy-to-compute function that stretches a short random string into a much longer string that "looks" just like a random string to any efficient adversary. One immediate application of a pseudorandom generator is the construction of a private key cryptosystem that is secure against chosen plaintext attack.

There do not seem to be natural examples of functions that are pseudorandom generators. On the other hand, there do seem to be a variety of natural examples of another basic primitive: the one-way function. A function is one-way if it is easy to compute but hard for any efficient adversary to invert on average.

The first half of the book shows how to construct a pseudorandom generator from any one-way function. Building on this, the second half of the book shows how to construct other useful cryptographic primitives, such as private key cryptosystems, pseudorandom function generators, pseudorandom permutation generators, digital signature schemes, bit commitment protocols, and zero-knowledge interactive proof systems. The book stresses rigorous definitions and proofs.

Overview and Usage Guidep. ix
Mini-Coursesp. xiii
Acknowledgmentsp. xv
Preliminaries 3
Introduction of some basic notation that is used in all subsequent lectures
Review of some computational complexity classes
Description of some useful probability facts
Introduction to private key cryptosystems, pseudorandom generators, One-way functions
Introduction of some specific conjectured One-way functionsp. 13
Discussions of security issues associated with the computing environment of a party, including the security parameter of a protocol
Definition of an adversary, the achievement ratio of an adversary for a protocol, and the security of a protocol
Definitions of One-way functions and One-way permutations, and cryptographic reductionp. 21
Definition of a weak One-way function
Reduction from a weak Oneway function to a One-way function
More efficient security preserving reductions from a weak One-way permutation to a One-way permutationp. 35
Proof that the discrete log problem is either a One-way permutation or not even weak One-way permutation via random self-reducibility
Definition of a pseudorandom generator, the next bit test, and the proof that the Two definitions are equivalent
Construction of a pseudorandom generator that stretches by a polynomial amount from a pseudorandom generator that stretches by One bitp. 49
Introduction of a Two part paradigm for derandornizing probabilistic algorithms
Two problems are used to exemplify this approach: witness sampling and vertex partitioningp. 56
Definition of inner product bit for a function and what it means to be a hidden bit
Description and proof of the Hidden Bit Theorem that shows the inner product bit is hidden for a One-way function
Definitions of statistical measures of distance between probability distributions and the analogous computational measures
Restatement of the, Hidden Bit Theorem in these terms and application of this theorem to construct a pseudorandom generator from a One-way permutation
Description and proof of the Many Hidden Bits Theorem that shows many inner product bit are hidden for a One-way function
Definitions of various notions of statistical entropy, computational entropy and pseudoentropy generators
Definition of universal hash Functions
Description and proof of the Smoothing Entropy Theoremp. 79
Reduction from a One-way One-to-One function to a pseudorandom generator using the Smoothing Entropy Theorem and the Hidden Bit Theorem
Reduction from a One-way regular function to a pseudorandom generator using the Smoothing Entropy Theorem and Many Hidden Bits Theoremp. 88
Definition of a false entropy generator
Construction and proof of a pseudorandom generator from a false entropy generator
Construction and proof of a false entropy generator from any One-way function in the non- uniform sensep. 95
Definition of a stream private key cryptosystem, definitions of several notions of security, including passive attack and chosen plaintext
attack, and design of a stream private key cryptosystern that is secure against these attacks based on a pseudorandom generatorp. 105
Definitions and motivation for a block cryptosystern and security against chosen plaintext attack
Definition and construction of a pseudorandom function generator from a pseudorandom generator
Construction of a block private key cryptosystern secure against chosen plaintext attack based on a pseudorandom function generatorp. 117
Discussion of the Data Encryption Standard
Definition of a pseudorandom invertible permutation generator and discussion of applications to the construction of a block private key cryptosystern secure against chosen plaintext attack
Construction of a perfect random permutation based on a perfect random functionp. 128
Construction of a pseudorandom invertible permut
Table of Contents provided by Publisher. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780691025469
ISBN-10: 0691025460
Series: Princeton Computer Science Notes
Audience: Tertiary; University or College
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 256
Published: 28th January 1996
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 24.13 x 15.88  x 1.91
Weight (kg): 0.39