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Providing Protection for Plant Genetic Resources : Patents, Sui Generis Systems and Biopartnerships - Patricia Marin

Providing Protection for Plant Genetic Resources

Patents, Sui Generis Systems and Biopartnerships

By: Patricia Marin (Editor)

Hardcover Published: 28th March 2002
ISBN: 9789041188755
Number Of Pages: 206

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The purpose of this book is to show that the access to plant genetic resources and the compliance to the objectives of the Convention on Biological Diversity can only be realised in this biotechnological era the world is facing, through the balance of rights and duties of States and stakeholders.

Specifically, this book suggests that the global partnership as professed in the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, in 1992, has so far not been reached. It examines the possibility of achieving the global partnership though clear, fair, ethical, and equitable biopartnerships in, between, and among States.

For this purpose, the author analyses international instruments and national laws dealing with patents, plant breeders' rights, farmers' rights, and sui generis protection and shows how they affect developing countries rich in biodiversity and traditional knowledge, such as Brazil. She raises awareness to problems derived from the patenting of genetic resources, plants, and traditional knowledge and presents sui generis alternatives proposed by different sectors of society in several countries.

The book critically examines five biopartnerships of countries in four different continents. The author proposes measures to protect traditional knowledge and innovations and suggests in which indigenous peoples, traditional farmers, and developing countries may achieve an equitable share of benefits for their contribution in the development of new medicines, foods, etc.

'This book deserves a strong endorsement for its comfortable writing style, ample support for the various propositions, and its innovative analysis of a system in need of something more than incremental fixing (given the wide range of concerns expressed here and elsewhere about the evolving WTO TRIPs patent protection regime).'

Abbreviationsp. xiii
p. 1
Introductionp. 1
p. 4
Patent Regulations to Protect Plant Genetic Resources and Plant Varietiesp. 4
General Introductionp. 4
Plant Variety and Plant Genetic Resource Protection in the United Statesp. 5
Plant Variety and Plant Genetic Resource Protection in Europep. 11
The International Intellectual Property Systemp. 15
Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Propertyp. 15
Patent Co-operation Treatyp. 17
Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rightsp. 18
Introductionp. 18
Patentable Subject Matterp. 19
Rights and the Patent Holderp. 23
Burden of Proofp. 24
TRIPs Implementationp. 25
Conclusionp. 26
General Conclusionp. 28
p. 29
Breeders' Rights Under the Upovp. 29
General Introductionp. 29
Upov 1978p. 30
Introductionp. 30
Conditions Required for Protectionp. 30
Scope of Protectionp. 31
Double Protectionp. 33
Duration of Protectionp. 34
Conclusionp. 34
UPOV Act of 1991p. 34
Introductionp. 34
Conditions for the Grant of the PBRsp. 34
Scope of Protectionp. 35
Double Protectionp. 37
Duration of Protectionp. 37
Conclusionp. 38
Differences and Similarities Between Pbrs and Patent Rightsp. 38
Plant Piracy in Australiap. 40
General Conclusionp. 42
p. 44
Fao Global System for the Conservation and Utilisation of Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculturep. 44
General Introductionp. 44
The International Undertakingp. 46
Introductionp. 46
Definition of and Access to PGRsp. 46
Annexes to the International Undertakingp. 48
FAO Resolution 4/89p. 49
FAO Resolution 5/89p. 51
FAO Resolution 3/91p. 53
Revision of International Undertakingp. 57
International Code of Conduct for Plant Germplasm Collecting and Transferp. 58
Conclusionp. 60
Examples of Cases Involving Farmers and Biotechnology Companiesp. 61
Introductionp. 61
Neem Treep. 62
"Terminator Technology"p. 63
Conclusionp. 64
General Conclusionp. 65
p. 68
Alternative Sui Generis Systems to Protect Plants, Plant Varieties and Associated Traditional Knowledgep. 68
General Introductionp. 68
Sui Generis System on the International Levelp. 68
Introductionp. 68
Sui Generis Systems Based on Intellectual Property Rights other than Patentsp. 69
Trademarksp. 69
Geographic Indicationsp. 71
Trade Secretsp. 72
Unesco/Wipo Model Provisions for National Laws on Protection of Expressions of Folklore Against Illicit Exploitation and other Prejudicial Actionsp. 74
Organisation of African Unity Draft Model Legislation on Community Rights on Access to Biological Resourcesp. 77
Conclusionp. 79
Sui Generis System on the National Levelp. 80
Introductionp. 80
Sui Generis System Combining Patents And Plant Breeders' Rightsp. 80
Thammasat Resolutionp. 81
Discoverer's Rightsp. 82
Convention of Farmers and Breedersp. 85
Conclusionp. 88
General Conclusionp. 89
p. 92
Implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity: Balancing the Interests of the Scientific and Traditional Communitiesp. 92
General Introductionp. 92
Objectives of the CDBp. 93
Introductionp. 93
Conservation of Biodiversityp. 94
Sustainable Use of The Components of Biological Diversityp. 98
Equitable Share of Benefits Derived from the Utilisation of its Componentsp. 101
Conclusionp. 106
Mechanisms Available for States to Negotiate the Equitable Share of Benefits Derived from the Use of Their Biodiversityp. 106
Introductionp. 106
Prior Informed Consentp. 107
Mutually Agreed Contractsp. 108
Conclusionp. 109
Comprehensive National Biodiversity Legislation-costa Ricap. 110
Definition of Biodiversityp. 110
Objectivesp. 111
Access To Genetic Resourcesp. 112
Conclusionp. 112
General Conclusionp. 113
p. 115
Biopartnershipsp. 115
General Introductionp. 115
Global Inequityp. 116
Biopartnershipsp. 117
Introductionp. 117
Biopartnership Contractsp. 119
Biopartnership Case-Studiesp. 120
Introductionp. 120
Merck-INBio Agreementp. 121
Sustainable Development Treaties between the Netherlands and Costa Rica, Bhutan and Beninp. 123
The Bioresources Development and Conservation Programp. 126
ICBG Biopartnership Project in Surinamep. 129
The Genetic Resources Recognition Fund of the University of California, Davisp. 131
Conclusionp. 133
General Conclusionp. 134
p. 137
The Effects of International Regimes in Brazilp. 137
General Introductionp. 137
Social Equality, Environmental and Intellectual Property Protection in the Brazilian Constitutionp. 137
Patent Lawp. 140
Introductionp. 140
General Principlesp. 141
Patentable Subject Matterp. 141
"Prior User" Conceptp. 143
Term of Protectionp. 144
Conclusionp. 144
Plant Variety Protection Lawp. 145
Biosafety Regulationsp. 149
Introductionp. 149
Biosafety Lawp. 149
Transgenic Soya Casep. 150
Labelling Genetically Modified Foodsp. 152
Conclusionp. 154
Proposed Legislation to Regulate Access to Brazil's Genetic Resources and Derived Productsp. 155
Introductionp. 155
Objectives of Bill 306/95p. 156
Scope of Bill 306/95p. 158
Who Can Access Brazil's Genetic Resourcesp. 158
Access Contractsp. 159
Responsible Organ for Access Proceedingsp. 160
Pre-established Requirements of the Access Contractsp. 161
Conclusionp. 164
General Conclusionp. 165
p. 167
Brazilian Biopartnershipsp. 167
General Introductionp. 167
Access to Plant Genetic Resources of Plants of Traditional Spiritual Value: Case-Study the Ayahuasca Plantsp. 167
Introductionp. 167
Access Bills and Access to the Sacred Plants Mariri and Chacronap. 168
Conclusionp. 175
Poema: Program Poverty and Environment in Amazoniap. 175
Sanitation and Nutritionp. 175
Agriculture in Layers, Commercialisation of Forest Products and BIOPartnershipsp. 176
Conclusionp. 179
Building the Scenery of Traditional Knowledgep. 179
Introductionp. 179
The Scenery Systemp. 180
Conclusionp. 183
General Conclusionp. 184
p. 185
Final Conclusionp. 185
Bibliographyp. 190
Indexp. 203
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9789041188755
ISBN-10: 9041188754
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 206
Published: 28th March 2002
Country of Publication: NL
Dimensions (cm): 25.65 x 16.71  x 2.03
Weight (kg): 0.62