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Protocol Analysis : Verbal Reports as Data - K. Anders Ericsson

Protocol Analysis

Verbal Reports as Data

Paperback

Published: 13th April 1993
For Ages: 18+ years old
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Since the publication of Ericsson and Simon's ground-breaking work in the early 1980s, verbal data has been used increasingly to study cognitive processes in many areas of psychology, and concurrent and retrospective verbal reports are now generally accepted as important sources of data on subjects' cognitive processes in specific tasks. In this revised edition of the book that first put protocol analysis on firm theoretical ground, the authors review major advances in verbal reports over the past decade, including new evidence on how giving verbal reports affects subjects' cognitive processes, and on the validity and completeness of such reports.In a substantial new preface Ericsson and Simon summarize the central issues covered in the book and provide an updated version of their information-processing model, which explains verbalization and verbal reports. They describe new studies on the effects of verbalization, interpreting the results of these studies and showing how their theory can be extended to account for them. Next, they address the issue of completeness of verbally reported information, reviewing the new evidence in three particularly active task domains. They conclude by citing recent contributions to the techniques for encoding protocols, raising general issues, and proposing directions for future research.All references and indexes have been updated.K. Anders Ericsson holds the Dr. Edward Conradi Eminent Scholar Chair of Psychology at Florida State University. Herbert Simon is Professor of Psychology at Carnegie-Mellon University. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in economics in 1978.

Foreword
Preface To The Revised Edition
Introduction And Summary
Using Verbal Reports: Some Issues
Doubts About Verbal Data
Extracting Data from Behavior
Soft versus Hard Data
Theoretical Presupposition in Encoding
Inferring Thought Processes From Behavior
Some Basic Assumptions
Plan of Attack
The Processing Model
General Specification
Detailed Specification
Types Of Verbalizing Procedures
Recoding Before Verbalization
Retrospective Reports
Inferential or Generative Processes
Directed or Specialized Probing
Particular and General Reports
Two Challenges To Verbal Reports
Apparent Inadequacies of Concurrent Verbalization
Apparent Inadequacies of Retrospective Reports
Concluding Remarks
Verbal Reports Of Cognitive States And Structures
Reporting of Sensory Stimuli
Reports of Information in STM
Reports of Information in LTM
Verbal Reports In Assessment Studies
Data
Effectiveness of Assessment
Processes Evoked by Assessment
Memories versus Inferences
History Of Verbal Reports And Introspection
Introspection
Watson's Attack on Introspection
Later Views
Summary And Prospect
Effects Of Verbalization
Verbalization And Thinking
Interference From Auditory Stimulation
Irrelevant Covert and Overt Articulations
Time Requirements for Vocalization
Experimental Studies Of Verbalizing Without Recoding
Simple Tasks With Oral Codes
Vocalization at Presentation
Verbalizing Rehearsal Processes
Verbalizing With Multiple Stimulus Displays
Verbalizing Associated With Mental Arithmetic
Some Conclusions
Thinking-Aloud Processes
Levels of Verbalization
Alternative Thinking-Aloud Instructions
Effects of Training and Reminders
Review Of Empirical Studies
Studies of Level 2 Verbalization
Differential Effects of Thinking Aloud
Studies Not Conforming With Level 2 Conditions
Verbalization of Perceptual-Motor Processes
Verbalization of Visual Encodings
Other Verbalization Studies
Effects from Retrospective Verbalization
New Research on Effects of Verbalization
Summary
Completeness Of Reports
Three Viewpoints
The Behaviorist View
Rationalism
The Information Processing View
Extensions of the IP Model
Recognition Processes
Evidence for One-Stage Recognition
"Spontaneous" Recall
Recognition and Inference
Assessment of Recognition Processes
Automation of Responses
Perceptual-Motor Processes
Information About Cognitive States
Tip-of-the-Tongue
Retrieval Without Direct Recognition
Judgments of Confidence
What Is Reported?
Learning Without Awareness
Concurrent Verbal Reports of Learning
Assessing Awareness from Post-Experimental Questioning
Sorting Without Awareness of Concept
Lack of Access to Relevant Knowledge
Retrospective Reports Of Earlier Cognitive Processes
Model of Retrospective Reporting
Reports of General Cognitive Processes During Experiments
Other Processes Without Awareness
Insight And Access To Solution Ideas
Insight as Recognition
Regeneration-Hypotheses
Conclusion
Interferences From Verbal Data
Requirements For Using Verbal Data
Perceptually Available Information
Information Generated and Retrieved
Memory As Evidence For Heeding
Alternative Models and Processes
Inferences From Verbal Reports
Identification of LTM Structures
LTM Traces as a Function of STM Patterns
Predictions of Latencies
Problem Behavior Graphs
Generalizations About Cognitive Processes
Model-Based Coding
Encoding Strategies
Direct Assessment Of General Processes
Coding Systems
Applications of the Encodings
Summary
Verbal Reports And Theories
Conclusion
Model Of Verbalization
General Model And Assumptions
Characterizing Cognitive Structures ("Thoughts")
Relation to Research on Language
Concurrent Verbalization
Talk-Aloud Procedures
Think-Aloud Procedures
Verbalizing Cognitive Process
Differences Between Verbal Reports and Descriptions
Incomplete Verbalization Of Information In STM
Implications of Real-Time Assumption.
Techniques for Increasing Verbalization
Implications For Protocol Analysis
Methods For Protocol Analysis
Early Protocol Analysis
Introduction To Techniques Of Protocol Analysis
Basic Assumptions
Encoding Vocabulary
Segmenting and Encoding Processes
Automation of Encoding
Level of Analysis
Methodological Issues
Translating Behavior Into Data
Context-Free Encoding
Other Issues
Selection of Information for Coding
"Contamination" of Data by Theory
Reliability And Validity Of Encoding
Encoding Process and Encoders
Mini Protocol Analysis System (MPAS)
Encoding Reliability
Automatic and Semi-Automatic Protocol Analysis
Effective Protocol Analysis Procedures
Matching Coding Categories to Verbalizations
Verbalization of General Knowledge and Rules
Conclusion
Techniques Of Protocol Analysis Examples
Informal Protocol Analysis
Example: Protocol from a Series Task
Major Processes
Protocol Interpretation
Using A Theory For Protocol Prediction
Characteristics Of Generated Information: Representations
The Eight Puzzle
Isomorphic Problems
Sequences Of Heeded Information
Mental Addition of Digit Sequences
Strategies for the Tower of Hanoi
Mental Multiplication
Processes With Alternative Realizations
Addition of Digits
Reliability Of Verbal Reports
Protocols for Anagrams
Series Problems
Concept Formation
A Memory Task
Summary
Concluding Remarks And Future Directions
Appendix
Talk-Aloud
Instruction:
Think-Aloud With Retrospective Reports
Bibliography
Author Index
Subject Index
Table of Contents provided by Publisher. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780262550239
ISBN-10: 0262550237
Series: Protocol Analysis
Audience: Professional
For Ages: 18+ years old
For Grades: 12+
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 499
Published: 13th April 1993
Publisher: MIT Press Ltd
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 22.9 x 15.2  x 2.5
Weight (kg): 0.81
Edition Number: 2
Edition Type: Revised