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Protective Relay Principles : Power Engineering Ser. - Anthony M. Sleva

Protective Relay Principles

Power Engineering Ser.

Hardcover

Published: 1st January 2009
Ships: 7 to 10 business days
7 to 10 business days
RRP $638.99
$441.95
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Hardcover
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RRP $365.99
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Improve Failure Detection and Optimize Protection
In the ever-evolving field of protective relay technology, an engineer's personal preference and professional judgment are as important to power system protection as the physical relays used to detect and isolate abnormal conditions.

Invaluable Insights from an Experienced Expert
Protective Relay Principles focuses on probable power system failure modes and the important characteristics of the protective relays used to detect these postulated failures. The book presents useful new concepts in a way that is easier to understand because they are equally relevant to older, electromechanical and solid-state relays, and newer, more versatile microprocessor-based relays. It introduces the applications, considerations, and setting philosophies used in transmission-line, distribution-line, and substation applications, covering concepts associated with general system operations and fault detection. Topics include relay load limits, cold load pickup, voltage recovery, and arc flash. The author also delves into the philosophies that engineers employ in both urban and rural areas, with a detailed consideration of setpoint function.


Analysis of Key Concepts That Are Usually Just Glossed Over
This versatile text is ideal for new engineers to use as a tutorial before they open the instruction manuals that accompany multi-function microprocessor-based relays. Guiding readers through the transient loading conditions that can result in relay misoperation, the author elaborates on concepts that are not generally discussed, but can be very helpful in specific applications. Readers will come away with an excellent grasp of important design considerations for working with overcurrent, over- and undervoltage, impedance, distance, and differential type relay functions, either individually or in combination. Also useful for students as a textbook, this book includes practical examples for many applications, and offers guidance for more unusual ones.

Prefacep. xiii
Authorp. xv
Acknowledgmentsp. xvii
Power System Componentsp. 1
Transmission Linesp. 1
Distribution Linesp. 5
Transformersp. 10
Circuit Breakersp. 15
Busesp. 16
Switchyardsp. 18
Fusesp. 19
Substationsp. 22
Reclosersp. 23
Generatorsp. 24
Power System Subcomponentsp. 27
Current Transformersp. 27
Voltage Transformersp. 31
Capacitive Coupled Voltage Transformersp. 32
Protective Relaysp. 34
Control Relaysp. 34
Master Trip Relaysp. 35
Programmable Logic Controllersp. 35
Insulatorsp. 35
Bushingsp. 36
Cable Terminatorsp. 36
Disconnect Switchesp. 36
Air Break Switchesp. 38
Motor-Operated Air Break Switchesp. 38
Ground Switchesp. 39
Surge Arrestorsp. 39
Sectionalizersp. 40
Batteriesp. 40
Abnormal Power System Conditionsp. 41
Short Circuitsp. 41
Three-Phase Faultsp. 42
Phase-to-Phase Faultsp. 44
Double Phase-to-Ground Faultsp. 44
Single Phase-to-Ground Faultsp. 45
Turn-to-Turn Faultsp. 47
Winding-to-Winding Faultsp. 47
Winding-to-Ground Faultsp. 47
Plate-to-Plate Faultsp. 47
Overloadsp. 48
Overvoltagep. 48
Undervoltagep. 49
Overfrequencyp. 49
Underfrequencyp. 50
Open Phasep. 51
Single Phasingp. 51
Phase Unbalancep. 52
Volts per Hertzp. 54
Short-Circuit Calculationsp. 57
Symmetrical Componentsp. 57
Positive Sequence Networksp. 59
Negative Sequence Networksp. 60
Zero Sequence Networksp. 60
Operatorsp. 61
Sequence Diagram Connections-Three-Phase Faultsp. 63
Sequence Diagram Connections-Phase-to-Phase Faultsp. 64
Sequence Diagram Connections-Single Phase-to-Ground Faultsp. 65
Per-Unit Quantitiesp. 65
Sample Calculationsp. 67
Sample Calculations-Three-Phase Faultsp. 68
Sample Calculations-Phase-to-Phase Faultsp. 69
Sample Calculations-Single Phase-to-Ground Faultsp. 71
Sample Calculations-Mutual Couplingp. 74
Protective Relay Functionsp. 79
Time Overcurrent Relay (51)p. 80
Instantaneous Overcurrent Relay (50)p. 82
Overvoltage Relay (59)p. 83
Undervoltage Relay (27)p. 85
Distance Relay (21)p. 86
Differential Relay (87)p. 88
Directional Relay (67)p. 89
Underfrequency Relay (81)p. 90
Overfrequency Relay (81)p. 91
Protective Relay Functional Combinationsp. 93
Voltage-Controlled Time Overcurrent Relayp. 93
Torque-Controlled Time Overcurrent Relayp. 94
Logic-Controlled Instantaneous Overcurrent Relayp. 94
Torque-Controlled Instantaneous Overcurrent Relayp. 95
Logic-Controlled Overvoltage Relayp. 95
Logic-Controlled Undervoltage Relayp. 95
Logic-Controlled Distance Relayp. 96
Current-Supervised Distance Relayp. 96
Logic-Supervised Differential Relayp. 96
Current-Supervised Differential Relayp. 97
Current-Supervised Underfrequency Relayp. 97
Dual Underfrequency Relaysp. 97
Zones and Regions of Protectionp. 99
Zones of Protectionp. 99
Relay Characteristics and Applied Setpointp. 101
Overcurrent Relaysp. 101
Distance Relaysp. 102
Differential Relaysp. 103
Instrument Transformer Location, Connection, Polarity, and Ratiop. 103
Overcurrent Relaysp. 103
Distance Relaysp. 104
Differential Relaysp. 104
Control Scheme Logicp. 105
Power System Configurationp. 105
Regions of Protectionp. 111
Relay Characteristics and Applied Setpointp. 113
Overvoltage Relaysp. 113
Undervoltage Relaysp. 115
Underfrequency Relaysp. 115
Overfrequency Relaysp. 116
Unbalanced Voltage Relaysp. 117
Instrument Transformer Location, Connection, Polarity, and Ratiop. 117
Overvoltage Relaysp. 117
Undervoltage Relaysp. 117
Underfrequency Relaysp. 117
Overfrequency Relaysp. 117
Unbalanced Voltage Relaysp. 118
Control Scheme Logicp. 118
Power System Configurationp. 118
Physical Characteristics of Protective Relaysp. 123
Electromechanical Relaysp. 123
Solid-State Relaysp. 125
Microprocessor-Based Relaysp. 126
Relay Operationp. 126
Relay Packagingp. 127
Setting Considerationsp. 131
Power System Configuration and Operationp. 131
Mutual Couplingp. 133
Ground Bank Actionp. 135
Power System Requirementsp. 140
Maximum Short-Circuit Current-Fault in Protected Zonep. 141
Maximum Relay Short-Circuit Current-Fault in Adjacent Zonep. 142
Minimum Relay Short-Circuit Current-Fault in Protected Zonep. 142
Fault Current Ratiop. 143
Relay Sensitivityp. 145
Circuit Loadingp. 146
Relay Coordinationp. 151
Directionalityp. 152
Accuracy of Calculationsp. 153
Device Accuracyp. 154
Circuit-Breaker Operating Timesp. 155
Transient Overreachp. 155
Cold Load Inrushp. 157
Redundancyp. 159
Relay Driftp. 159
Securityp. 160
Arc Flash Hazardp. 160
Circuit Breaker-Failure Detection and Isolationp. 161
Free-Standing CT Flashover Detectionp. 162
Switchable Settingsp. 162
Recovery Voltage Inrushp. 162
Protection and Control Schemesp. 163
Alternative Protective Relay Trip Logicp. 171
Supervised Protective Relay Logicp. 173
Protective Relay Coordinationp. 175
Instantaneous Current Relaysp. 175
Time Overcurrent Relaysp. 176
Maximum Current Flow with Normal Fault Clearingp. 176
Maximum Current Flow When a Remote Circuit Breaker Fails to Openp. 177
Maximum Ratio of Through Current for Restricted Faults on Each Remote Linep. 177
Maximum Ratio of Through Current for Restricted Faults on Each Remote Line and Remote Circuit Breaker Fails to Openp. 178
Instantaneous Voltage Relaysp. 178
Time-Delayed Voltage Relaysp. 179
Instantaneous (Zone 1) Impedance Relaysp. 179
Time-Delayed (Zone 2 or Zone 3) Impedance Relaysp. 180
Instantaneous Frequency Relaysp. 180
Time-Delayed Frequency Relaysp. 181
Distribution-Line Protection: Radial Linesp. 183
Distribution-Line Protection Philosophyp. 184
Time Overcurrent Phase Relaysp. 185
Instantaneous Overcurrent Phase Relaysp. 185
Time Overcurrent Ground Relaysp. 185
Instantaneous Overcurrent Ground Relaysp. 186
Setpoint Margin Considerationsp. 186
Distribution-Line Protectionp. 188
Time Overcurrent Phase Relay Pickup Setting-Load Capabilityp. 191
Time Overcurrent Ground Relay Pickup Setting-Load Capabilityp. 191
Low Set Instantaneous Overcurrent Phase Relay Pickup Settingp. 192
Low-Set Instantaneous Overcurrent Ground Relay Pickup Settingp. 192
High-Set Instantaneous Overcurrent Phase Relay Pickup Settingp. 193
High-Set Instantaneous Overcurrent Ground Relay Pickup Settingp. 196
Time Overcurrent Phase Relay Pickup Setting-Sensitivity Checkp. 197
Time Overcurrent Phase Relay Pickup Setting-Time Delayp. 197
Time Overcurrent Phase Relay Pickup Setting-Upstream Coordinationp. 204
Time Overcurrent Ground Relay Pickup Setting-Sensitivity Checkp. 205
Time Overcurrent Ground Relay Pickup Setting-Time Delayp. 206
Time Overcurrent Relay Ground Pickup Setting-Upstream Coordinationp. 207
Distribution-Line Protection: Network Linesp. 213
Networked Distribution-Line Protection Philosophyp. 214
Time Overcurrent Phase Relaysp. 214
Definite Time Overcurrent Phase Relaysp. 215
Instantaneous Overcurrent Phase Relaysp. 215
Time Overcurrent Ground Relaysp. 215
Definite Time Overcurrent Ground Relaysp. 215
Instantaneous Overcurrent Ground Relaysp. 215
Setpoint Margin Considerationsp. 216
Distribution-Line Protectionp. 218
Time Overcurrent Phase Relay Pickup Setting-Load Capabilityp. 218
Time Overcurrent Ground Relay Pickup Setting-Load Capabilityp. 221
Instantaneous Overcurrent Phase Relay Pickup Settingp. 221
Instantaneous Overcurrent Ground Relay Pickup Settingp. 224
Definite Time Overcurrent Phase Relay Pickup Settingp. 225
Definite Time Overcurrent Ground Relay Pickup Settingp. 225
Time Overcurrent Phase Relay Pickup Setting-Sensitivity Checkp. 226
Time Overcurrent Phase Relay Pickup Setting-Time Delayp. 226
Time Overcurrent Phase Relay Pickup Setting-Upstream Coordinationp. 227
Time Overcurrent Ground Relay Pickup Setting-Sensitivity Checkp. 229
Time Overcurrent Ground Relay Pickup Setting-Time Delayp. 231
Time Overcurrent Relay Ground Pickup Setting-Upstream Coordinationp. 231
Transmission-Line Protectionp. 235
Phase Distance Relaysp. 236
Ground Distance Relaysp. 246
Overcurrent Ground Relaysp. 247
Instantaneous Overcurrent Ground Relaysp. 250
Time Overcurrent Ground Relaysp. 251
Directional Unit Sensitivity for Ground Faultsp. 254
Current-Polarized Ground Relaysp. 254
Voltage-Polarized Ground Relaysp. 255
High-Speed Relaying Schemesp. 255
Permissive Overreaching Schemep. 256
Directional Comparison Blocking Schemep. 257
Direct Underreaching Transfer Trip Schemesp. 258
Direct Transfer Trip Schemesp. 259
Line Differential Schemep. 260
CT Saturationp. 261
Transformer Protectionp. 263
Transformer External Fault Protectionp. 271
Bus Protectionp. 275
Overcurrent Bus Differentialp. 275
Bus Differential-Quick Trip Settingsp. 276
Bus Differential-Time Overcurrent Settingsp. 277
High-Impedance Bus Differentialp. 279
Sensitivity for Bus Faultsp. 284
Breaker Failure Relayingp. 285
Remote Breaker Failure Protection-Phase Distance Relaysp. 285
Remote Breaker Failure Protection-Overcurrent Ground Relaysp. 286
Remote Breaker Failure Protection-Watt-Type Ground Relaysp. 287
Local Breaker Failure Protection-Traditionalp. 287
Control Elementary Diagramp. 291
Control Elementary Diagramp. 293
Local Breaker Failure Protection for Transformer Protectionp. 296
Capacitor Protectionp. 299
Neutral Current Monitoringp. 301
Midpoint Voltage Monitoringp. 303
Shunt and Series Reactor Protectionp. 307
Grid Protectionp. 315
Voltage Issuesp. 315
Undervoltage Protection-Grid Protectionp. 316
Undervoltage Protection-Load Protectionp. 317
Overvoltage Protection-Grid Protectionp. 319
Overvoltage Protection-Lord Protectionp. 320
Frequency Controlp. 322
Underfrequency Relayingp. 324
Overfrequency Relayingp. 329
Indexp. 333
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780824753726
ISBN-10: 0824753720
Series: Power Engineering Ser.
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 349
Published: 1st January 2009
Publisher: CRC PR INC
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 24.77 x 16.51  x 1.91
Weight (kg): 0.64
Edition Number: 1