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Project Management : A Strategic Planning Approach - Paul Gardiner

Project Management

A Strategic Planning Approach

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Published: 26th January 2005
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This book is designed to appeal to undergraduate and postgraduate students studying project management and pursuing a business degree.

It gives a comprehensive overview of project management practice, while carefully balancing the unique aspects of project management curricula with the more general business skills, including quality, risk, teams, and leadership.

The text includes a wide range of cases to connect the academic principles and the complexity of real-life projects. The text is also supported by multiple choice questions at the end of each chapter, as well as in-text exercises and examples to illustrate the concepts and ideas throughout the book.

About the Author

Paul Gardiner is a Lecturer in the School of Management and Languages at Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, UK

"This is an excellent(!) introduction, well prepared and outstanding graphic support! I always forget about the importance of planning...but this book reminds me that 'planning can be fun'." - Dr Richard Mischak, University of Applied Sciences, Austria "Overall, Project Management - a strategic planning approach is a valuable resource for all students and academics interested in Project Management ... Its format and written style contribute to makign reading this book an enjoyable experience." - D silva, Journal of the Operationanal Research Society

About this bookp. xi
Learning objectivesp. xi
Why study project management?p. xi
Who should use this book?p. xi
Key featuresp. xii
Companion websitep. xii
Learning aidsp. xii
How to use this bookp. xiii
Key themesp. xiii
Resources for lecturersp. xiii
Introduction to projects and project managementp. 1
Learning objectivesp. 1
Introductionp. 1
What is a project?p. 1
Time Out: Recognising projectsp. 2
Characteristics of projectsp. 2
Insights from Industry The absent-mineded professorp. 3
Insights from Industry A multimedia project for nursing studentsp. 3
Project management exploredp. 5
Planningp. 5
Organisingp. 6
Controllingp. 6
Leading and motivatingp. 7
Hard and soft skillsp. 7
Where do projects-come from?p. 9
Insights from Industry Sources of IT projects at a major UK bankp. 9
Insights from Industry Junior achievement faces growing paperwork mountainp. 10
Programme managementp. 11
Differences between programme and project managementp. 11
Insights from Industry Applied ITp. 12
History of project managementp. 12
Development of management thoughtp. 12
Creation of special tools and techniquesp. 12
Development of information and communication technologiesp. 13
Socioeconomic and political influencesp. 13
Expanding scope of project managementp. 13
The future of project managementp. 13
Associations, standards and journalsp. 15
Project management associations and institutesp. 15
Project management standardsp. 15
Journalsp. 16
Personal training and educationp. 16
Project Management in action: The making of a city technology collegep. 17
Insights from Industry Future learning systemsp. 17
Summary pointsp. 20
Referencesp. 20
A systems view of project managementp. 22
Learning objectivesp. 22
Introductionp. 22
A systems approachp. 22
Introduction to systems theoryp. 22
Projects as systemsp. 23
The human factorp. 25
Feedback in a systemp. 25
The importance of feedbackp. 25
Time Out: Feedback in a simple gardening projectp. 25
Effect of a time lag in a feedback systemp. 25
Feed-forward systemsp. 26
Time Out: Feed forward in a simple gardening projectp. 26
Feedback and feed forward in project managementp. 26
Phases and characteristics of the project life cyclep. 27
The project life cyclep. 27
Insights from Industry Why bother with a feasibility study?p. 28
Common life cycle characteristicsp. 30
Time Out: Project life cyclep. 31
Information flows in a projectp. 31
Fast trackingp. 32
Insights from Industry Benefiting from fast trackingp. 32
Warning about fast trackingp. 33
A contingency approach to project life cyclesp. 33
Software and systems development project life cyclesp. 34
Time Out: Software development project life cyclesp. 37
Building and constructionp. 37
Insights from Industry Dirty and noisy ... Higgins Hall, Boston Collegep. 38
Research and development (R&D)p. 38
Entertainment and eventsp. 39
Time Out: Live entertainmentp. 39
Insights from Industry Edinburgh's Hogmanay Festivalp. 39
Disasters and emergenciesp. 40
Insights from Industry Disasters and emergenciesp. 40
Classifying projectsp. 41
Participant mixp. 41
Degree of standardisationp. 42
Degree of visibilityp. 42
Time Out: Classifying projectsp. 42
Business needp. 43
Insights from Industry Cutting-edge technology projectp. 44
Size and complexityp. 44
Industryp. 44
Scaleable project management methodologiesp. 45
Projects in controlled environments (Prince 2)p. 46
Chapman's project management scaleable methodologyp. 47
Project Management in action: A PC banking projectp. 47
Summary pointsp. 52
Referencesp. 53
Strategy and governancep. 54
Learning objectivesp. 54
Introductionp. 54
Projects and strategyp. 54
Strategic managementp. 55
Corporate governancep. 56
Strategic governancep. 58
Decision making under uncertaintyp. 58
Strategic clarity versus freedom of choicep. 59
Strategic alignment of the project portfoliop. 60
Benefit deliveryp. 60
A performance ethicp. 61
Programme governancep. 61
A governance framework for programmesp. 61
Insights from Industry System of governance within Queensland Government, Dept of Public Works, Australiap. 61
Programme organisationp. 64
Insights from Industry Using a project support office to integrate suppliersp. 64
Management by projectsp. 65
Insights from Industry Thames Valley Police move towards management by projectsp. 65
IT governancep. 66
Project governancep. 68
Authorisation managementp. 69
Insights from Industry Authorisation managementp. 70
Project Management in action: The Scottish Qualifications Authorityp. 71
Summary pointsp. 77
Referencesp. 78
Investment decision makingp. 80
Learning objectivesp. 80
Introductionp. 80
Insights from Industry IT investment management process, US General Accounting Officep. 80
Feasibility studyp. 82
Insights from Industry Feasibility study requirements for development projects in Chinap. 82
A typical feasibility studyp. 83
Business case developmentp. 83
Business case perspectivesp. 84
Level of detail requiredp. 84
Progressive development of a business casep. 85
Capital budgetingp. 85
Project appraisalsp. 86
Project summaryp. 86
Financial versus economic appraisalp. 86
Externalities and their valuationp. 87
Cash flows and sunk costsp. 87
Cash flow analysisp. 89
Prioritisation techniquesp. 91
Financial analysisp. 91
Decision tree analysisp. 95
Scoring and ranking modelsp. 97
Portfolio optimisationp. 98
Simulationp. 100
Real optionsp. 100
Cognitive modellingp. 101
Cluster analysisp. 101
Summary of prioritisation techniquesp. 101
Insights from Industry Prioritisation in practicep. 101
Project Management in action: Roadkill the moviep. 103
Summary pointsp. 104
Acknowledgmentsp. 105
Referencesp. 105
The project manager, sponsor and other stakeholdersp. 106
Learning objectivesp. 106
Introductionp. 106
Project stakeholdersp. 106
Leadership role of the project managerp. 107
Who is the project managerp. 107
Time Out: The well-prepared project managerp. 109
Selling the project ideap. 110
Meeting the needs of the sponsorp. 110
Insights from Industry Satisfying your customers is really hard workp. 110
Meeting the needs of the other stakeholdersp. 111
Managing the project life cyclep. 111
A survey of project leadership skillsp. 112
Time Out: Key differences between excellent and average project managersp. 113
Project managers need 'soft' skillsp. 113
Time Out: I know a project manager ...p. 115
The project sponsorp. 115
Senior managementp. 116
The project boardp. 117
The project championp. 117
Insights from Industry Multiple project champions help ensure successp. 118
Consultants and contractorsp. 118
Consultantsp. 118
Contractorsp. 119
The importance of managing expectationsp. 119
Stakeholder identification and analysisp. 120
Mapping the impact of stakeholders onto the projectp. 121
From 'managing' to 'collaborating with' stakeholdersp. 123
Project Management in action: Easy Finance Ltdp. 123
Summary pointsp. 124
Referencesp. 125
Organisation and procurementp. 126
Learning objectivesp. 126
Introductionp. 126
The relevance of organisation structurep. 126
Insights from Industry Organisation and communication issues for a defence project contractorp. 127
Functional structurep. 128
Product (or projectised) structurep. 129
Matrix structurep. 130
Insights from Industry The Twingo projectp. 131
Weak matrix structurep. 132
Strong matrix structurep. 132
Discussion of matrix managementp. 132
Insights from Industry Silos and hierarchiesp. 133
Virtual organisationsp. 135
Organisational boundaries in procurementp. 135
Supply chain managementp. 136
Procurement planningp. 137
Requirements planningp. 137
Solicitationp. 139
Awardingp. 141
Contract administrationp. 142
Insights from Industry Hiring consultantsp. 142
Contract terms of paymentp. 143
Fixed price contractsp. 144
Cost reimbursement contractsp. 145
Other contractsp. 145
Incentive contractingp. 145
Insights from Industry Incentive-based savings pave the way for new projectsp. 146
How to choose a contract payment methodp. 148
Insights from Industry Contractors ask for more risk!p. 149
International contractsp. 150
NECp. 150
FIDICp. 150
International contract lawp. 150
World Trade Organization (WTO) procurement guidelinesp. 151
World Bank procurement guidelinesp. 151
Partnering and joint venturesp. 151
Which projects can benefit from partnering?p. 152
Common pitfalls in joint ventures (JVs)p. 153
Project-based joint venturesp. 153
Boot, Bot and Boo arrangementsp. 154
Project Management in action: Knowing the drill - virtual teamwork at BPp. 155
Project Management in action: Maritime helicopter procurement processp. 156
Summary pointsp. 158
Referencesp. 158
Managing risk and qualityp. 160
Learning objectivesp. 160
Introductionp. 160
Risk and risk managementp. 161
Insights from Industry If you don't take commercial risks, you're not going to make any moneyp. 162
Risk management planningp. 163
Risk assessmentp. 164
Identification of risksp. 164
Analysis and prioritisationp. 165
Risk controlp. 166
Risk response planningp. 166
Insights from Industry Simulation studies at the Auckland International Airport terminal expansionp. 168
Risk resolutionp. 168
Risk monitoring and reportingp. 168
Contingency planning - if all else fails ...p. 169
Useful tools to help manage riskp. 169
Keeping a risk registerp. 169
Risk concept mapp. 170
Rampp. 171
Health and safetyp. 173
What is safetyp. 173
Hazardsp. 173
Tolerability of risk (ToR)p. 174
HAZOP studies - safety in the process industriesp. 175
Safety critical applications in projectsp. 175
Quality managementp. 176
Product qualityp. 176
Service qualityp. 177
Process qualityp. 177
Insights from Industry Payroll on the loosep. 178
Quality, grade, reliabilityp. 179
International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO)p. 179
Demingp. 181
Juranp. 183
Crosbyp. 183
Quality management processesp. 184
Quality management complements project managementp. 184
The cost of qualityp. 184
Total cost of qualityp. 185
Quality control toolsp. 185
Special concerns for projectsp. 186
Taking cognisance of the external environmentp. 187
Insights from Industry Airport and runway projectsp. 187
Insights from Industry Australia's Fight for a Tidal Power Stationp. 188
Project Management in action: Taj Mahal Cycle Taxi Improvement Projectp. 189
Summary pointsp. 196
Referencesp. 197
Project initiation and team buildingp. 198
Learning objectivesp. 198
Introductionp. 198
Project scoping - defining a project's mission and purposep. 198
Identifying the project's requirementsp. 199
The project charterp. 200
Scoping is iterative - requirements can changep. 200
The stakeholders - getting them to say 'Yes'p. 201
Critical success factorsp. 201
Objectivesp. 201
Value managementp. 202
What's involved - scope, time, resourcesp. 202
Scope-time-cost trianglep. 202
Time Out: Scope, time, costp. 203
Breakdown structuresp. 204
Deliverables and activitiesp. 204
The concept of 'chunking'p. 205
Using breakdown structures in project managementp. 205
The work breakdown structure (WBS)p. 205
Developing a WBSp. 206
Time Out: Creating a WBSp. 208
The organisation breakdown structure (OBS)p. 208
The project team and team buildingp. 210
Selecting the project teamp. 210
Organising the project team and role clarificationp. 211
Holding a kick-off meeting or workshopp. 212
Opportunities for team building and developmentp. 212
Time Out: Team-building scenariosp. 213
How to recognise an effective teamp. 214
Time Out: Using the team effectiveness inventoryp. 214
Models for team developmentp. 214
Life cycle of a teamp. 214
Belbin's team rolesp. 217
Conflict managementp. 218
Fundamental needs of an effective teamp. 221
The four pillars model of effective teamsp. 222
Limitations of team buildingp. 229
Project Management in action: DataSys knowledge transfer programmep. 230
Summary pointsp. 241
Referencesp. 242
Estimating, scheduling and budgetingp. 244
Learning objectivesp. 244
Introductionp. 244
The project schedulep. 245
Estimating activity durationsp. 245
Issues in estimating durationp. 245
Defining activity dependencies and creating a project networkp. 246
Sequencing activities in parallel or in seriesp. 246
The network diagramp. 246
Activity boxesp. 246
Activity relationshipsp. 247
Creating a networkp. 247
Time Out: Using a precedence table to draw a networkp. 248
Using Post-it notesp. 249
Time Out: Defining logical relationships and creating a network from scratchp. 249
Analysing the network to determine the critical pathp. 250
Forward passp. 251
Backward passp. 251
Activity floatsp. 251
Time Out: Analysing a networkp. 251
Importance of network analysisp. 252
Gantt chartp. 252
Milestonesp. 253
Gantt charts versus network diagramsp. 253
Adding people and optimising the schedulep. 254
Worked example in resource smoothingp. 255
Worked example in project crashingp. 257
Project management software packagesp. 260
Project budgetingp. 261
Insights from Industry Gambling with high stakesp. 262
The building blocks of a budgetp. 262
The budget as a yardstickp. 262
Approaches to budgetingp. 263
Top-down budgetingp. 263
Insights from Industry The Sydney Opera House - success or failure?p. 263
Bottom-up budgetingp. 263
Iterative budgetingp. 264
Insights from Industry Communication saves projectsp. 264
Risk and management reservep. 264
Time Out: No management reserve!p. 264
Project budgeting in actionp. 265
How much detailp. 265
Creating a budget structurep. 265
Generating a time-phased budgetp. 265
Life cycle costingp. 265
Suppliersp. 265
Insights from Industry Take good care of your suppliersp. 266
Time Out: Financial reporting systemsp. 266
Resource planningp. 266
Cost estimatingp. 267
Insights from Industry Learning...the price of successp. 267
Tools and techniques for cost estimatingp. 267
Analogous estimating (or top-down estimating)p. 267
Parametric estimatingp. 267
Insights from Industry Parametric cost estimatingp. 268
Definitive estimating (or bottom-up estimating)p. 268
Cost budgetingp. 268
Time Out: A question of detailp. 268
S-curvesp. 269
Cash flow projectionsp. 270
Creating a cash flow and S-curvep. 270
Time Out: Project cash flowsp. 271
Time Out: Optimising duration for minimum costp. 276
Project Management in action: Albion Sugar Companyp. 278
Summary pointsp. 281
Referencesp. 283
Control, closure and continuous improvementp. 284
Learning objectivesp. 284
Introductionp. 284
Project monitoring and controlp. 284
Project control systemsp. 285
Control limitsp. 285
Effectiveness of project control systemsp. 285
Designing a project monitoring and control systemp. 285
Change management and controlp. 286
Benefits of effective change managementp. 286
Types and sources of changep. 287
The change management planp. 287
Milestone monitoringp. 289
Time Out: Use of milestone monitoringp. 289
Project control using earned value analysis (EVA)p. 291
Origin of EVAp. 291
The primary measurement variables in EVAp. 291
Time Out: Missing informationp. 291
A few more metricsp. 292
Time Out: Care with cost curvesp. 293
Time Out: Applying EVA to a projectp. 293
Difficulties with EVAp. 294
Estimating physical progress using the 0/100 rulep. 294
Estimating physical progress using a variation of the 0/100 rulep. 294
Estimating physical progress using units or standardsp. 294
Time Out: Measuring physical progress when cleaning a carp. 294
Project closurep. 295
Benefits of efficient project closurep. 295
The closure planp. 295
Closing the projectp. 296
Final project evaluationp. 296
Determinants of project success and failurep. 297
Project successp. 297
Project failurep. 299
Critical chain project management (CCPM) - a critical perspectivep. 300
Introduction to the theory of constraints (TOC)p. 300
Applying TOC to project management: the critical chainp. 300
The TOC approach to managing safety timep. 301
Feeding buffersp. 302
Multiple projectsp. 303
Controlling the process - buffer managementp. 304
Benefits and criticisms of critical chain project managementp. 304
Behaviour changes required to implement CCPMp. 305
Continuous improvementp. 305
Performance measurementp. 306
Project Management in action: The $26 million 'Oops!'p. 307
Summary pointsp. 311
Referencesp. 312
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780333982228
ISBN-10: 0333982223
Audience: Tertiary; University or College
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 336
Published: 26th January 2005
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 24.6 x 19.0  x 2.0
Weight (kg): 0.66
Edition Number: 1