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Program Evaluation : Alternative Approaches and Practical Guidelines - Jody L. Fitzpatrick

Program Evaluation

Alternative Approaches and Practical Guidelines

Hardcover Published: 27th September 2010
ISBN: 9780205579358
Number Of Pages: 544

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A highly esteemed and comprehensive overview of program evaluation that covers common approaches, models, and methods.

 

As schools and other organizations increase their demand for information on program effectiveness and outcomes, it has become even more important for students to understand the prevalent approaches and models for evaluation, including approaches based on objectives and logic models, participative, and decision-making approaches. The new tenth edition of Program Evaluation not only covers these vital approaches but also teaches readers how to best mix and match elements of different approaches to conduct optimal evaluation studies for individual programs. 

 

Helping both students as well as professionals who are new to the field, this text provides practical guidelines for conducting evaluations, from identifying the questions that the evaluation should address, to determining how to collect and analyze evaluative information, to ascertaining how to provide evaluative information to others. Making extensive use of checklists, examples, and other study aides, Program Evaluation teaches students how to effectively determine the central purpose of their evaluation, thus making their evaluation more valid, more useful, and more efficient.

 

The revised edition of the text includes new approaches to program evaluation, an expanded discussion of logic models, added information on mixed models, and, as always, updated coverage of the most current trends and controversial issues in evaluation.

"This is a landmark text and it remains the definitive classic for training new evaluators. The authors have truly made an important contribution to the field...Nothing comes close to this text in terms of coverage, balance of theory and practicality, and usefulness in the field of evaluation." - Gary J. Skolits, University of Tennessee "This is a great textbook. It is simply the most readable, most comprehensive introduction to program evaluation." - Ted Miller, University of Tennessee, Chattanooga

Contents Preface PART ONE Introduction to Evaluation Chapter 1 Evaluation's Basic Purposes, Uses, and Conceptual Distinctions Informal versus Formal Evaluation A Brief Definition of Evaluation and Other Key Terms Differences in Evaluation and Research The Purposes of Evaluation Roles and Activities of Professional Evaluators Uses and Objects of Evaluation Some Basic Types of Evaluation Formative and Summative Evaluation Needs Assessment, Process, and Outcome Evaluations Internal and External Evaluations Evaluation's Importance--and Its Limitations Chapter 2 Origins and Current Trends in Modern Program Evaluation The History and Influence of Evaluation in Society Early Forms of Formal Evaluation Program Evaluation: 1800--1940 Program Evaluation: 1940--1964 The Emergence of Modern Program Evaluation: 1964--1972 Evaluation Becomes a Profession: 1973--1989 1990-The Present: History and Current Trends Spread of Evaluation to Other Countries Non-Evaluators Take On Internal Evaluation Responsibilities A Focus on Measuring Outcomes and Impact Considering Organizational Learning and Evaluation's Larger Potential Impacts Chapter 3 Political, Interpersonal, and Ethical Issues in Evaluation Evaluation and its Political Context How Is Evaluation Political? Suggestions for Working within the Political Environment Establishing and Maintaining Good Communications Maintaining Ethical Standards: Considerations, Issues, and Responsibilities for Evaluators What Kinds of Ethical Problems Do Evaluators Encounter? Ethical Standards in Evaluation Protections to Human Subjects and the Role of Institutional Review Boards Reflecting on Sources of Bias and Conflicts of Interest Ethics beyond a Code of Ethics PART II Alternative Approaches To Program Evaluation Chapter 4 Alternative Views Of Evaluation Diverse Conceptions of Program Evaluation Origins of Alternative Views of Evaluation Philosophical and Ideological Differences Methodological Backgrounds and Preferences Classifications of Evaluation Theories or Approaches Existing Categories and Critiques A Classification Schema for Evaluation Approaches Chapter 5 First Approaches: Expertise and Consumer-Oriented Approaches The Expertise-Oriented Approach Developers of the Expertise-Oriented Evaluation Approach and Their Contributions Formal Professional Review Systems: Accreditation Informal Review Systems Ad Hoc Panel Reviews Ad Hoc Individual Reviews Influences of the Expertise-Oriented Approach: Uses, Strengths and Limitations The Consumer-Oriented Evaluation Approach The Developer of the Consumer-Oriented Evaluation Approach Applying the Consumer-Oriented Approach Other Applications of the Consumer Oriented Approach Influences of the Consumer-Oriented Approach: Uses, Strengths and Limitations Chapter 6 Program-Oriented Evaluation Approaches The Objectives-Oriented Evaluation Approach The Tylerian Evaluation Approach Provus's Discrepancy Evaluation Model A Schema for Generating and Analyzing Objectives: The Evaluation Cube Logic Models and Theory-Based Evaluation Approaches Logic Models Theory-Based or Theory-Driven Evaluation How Program-Oriented Evaluation Approaches Have Been Used Strengths and Limitations of Program-Oriented Evaluation Approaches Goal-Free Evaluation Chapter 7 Decision-Oriented Evaluation Approaches Developers of Decision-Oriented Evaluation Approaches and Their Contributions The Decision-Oriented Approaches The CIPP Evaluation Model The UCLA Evaluation Model Utilization-Focused Evaluation Evaluability Assessment and Performance Monitoring How the Decision-Oriented Evaluation Approaches Have Been Used Strengths and Limitations of Decision-Oriented Evaluation Approaches Chapter 8 Participant-Oriented Evaluation Approaches Evolution of Participatory Approaches Developers of Participant-Oriented Evaluation Approaches and Their Contributions Robert Stake and his Responsive Approach Egon Guba and Yvonna Lincoln: Naturalistic and Fourth Generation Evaluation Participatory Evaluation Today: Two Streams and Many Approaches Categories of Participatory Approaches Differences in Current Participatory Approaches Developmental Evaluation Empowerment Evaluation Democratically-Oriented Approaches to Evaluation Looking Back How Participant-Oriented Evaluation Approaches Have Been Used Research on Involvement of Stakeholders Use of Approaches by Developers Strengths and Limitations of Participant-Oriented Evaluation Approaches Strengths of Participatory Approaches Limitations of Participatory Approaches Chapter 9 Other Current Considerations: Cultural Competence and Capacity Building The Role of Culture and Context in Evaluation Practice and Developing Cultural Competence Growing Attention to the Need for Cultural Competence Why is Cultural Competence Important? Evaluation's Roles in Organizations: Evaluation Capacity Building and Mainstreaming Evaluation Mainstreaming Evaluation Evaluation Capacity Building Limitations to Mainstreaming Evaluation and Capacity Building Chapter 10 A Comparative Analysis Of Approaches A Summary and Comparative Analysis of Evaluation Approaches Cautions about the Alternative Evaluation Approaches Evaluation Approaches are Distinct but May Be Mixed in Practice "Discipleship" to a Particular Evaluation "Model" Is a Danger Calls to Abandon Pluralism and Consolidate Evaluation Approaches into One Generic Model Are Still Unwise The Choice of Evaluation Approach Is Not Empirically Based Contributions of the Alternative Evaluation Approaches Comparative Analysis of Characteristics of Alternative Evaluation Approaches Eclectic Uses of the Alternative Evaluation Approaches Drawing Practical Implications from the Alternative Evaluation Approaches PART III Practical Guidelines for Planning Evaluations Chapter 11 Clarifying the Evaluation Request and Responsibilities Understanding the Reasons for Initiating the Evaluation Direct, Informational Uses of Evaluation Noninformational Uses of Evaluation Conditions under Which Evaluation Studies Are Inappropriate Evaluation Would Produce Trivial Information Evaluation Results Will Not Be Used Evaluation Cannot Yield Useful, Valid Information The Type of Evaluation Is Premature for the Stage of the Program Propriety of Evaluation Is Doubtful Determining When an Evaluation Is Appropriate: Evaluability Assessment How Does One Determine Whether a Program Is Evaluable? Checklist of Steps for Determining When to Conduct an Evaluation Using an Internal or External Evaluator Advantages of External Evaluations Advantages of Internal Evaluations Advantages of Combining Internal and External Evaluation Checklist of Steps for Determining Whether to Use an External Evaluator Hiring an Evaluator Competencies Needed By Evaluators Possible Approaches to Hiring An Evaluator Checklist of Questions to Consider in Selecting an Evaluator How Different Evaluation Approaches Clarify the Evaluation Request and Responsibilities Chapter 12 Setting Boundaries and Analyzing the Evaluation Context Identifying Stakeholders and Intended Audiences for an Evaluation Identifying Stakeholders to be Involved in the Evaluation and Future Audiences Importance of Identifying and Involving Various Stakeholders Describing What Is To Be Evaluated: Setting the Boundaries Factors to Consider in Characterizing the Object of the Evaluation Using Program Theory and Logic Models to Describe the Program Methods for Describing the Program and Developing Program Theory Dealing with Different Perceptions Re-Describing the Program as it Changes A Sample Description of an Evaluation Object Analyzing the Resources and Capabilities That Can Be Committed to the Evaluation Analyzing Financial Resources Needed for the Evaluation Analyzing Availability and Capability of Evaluation Personnel Analyzing Technological and Other Resources and Constraints for Evaluations Analyzing the Political Context for the Evaluation Variations Caused By the Evaluation Approach Used Determining Whether to Proceed with the Evaluation Chapter 13 Identifying and Selecting the Evaluation Questions and Criteria Identifying Useful Sources for Evaluation Questions: The Divergent Phase Identifying Questions, Concerns, and Information Needs of Stakeholders Using Evaluation Approaches as Heuristics Using Research and Evaluation Work in the Program Field Using Professional Standards, Checklists, Guidelines, and Criteria Developed or Used Elsewhere Asking Expert Consultants to Specify Questions or Criteria Using the Evaluator's Professional Judgment Summarizing Suggestions from Multiple Sources Selecting The Questions, Criteria, And Issues To Be Addressed: The Convergent Phase Who Should Be Involved in the Convergent Phase? How Should the Convergent Phase Be Carried Out? Specifying the Evaluation Criteria and Standards Absolute Standards Relative Standards Remaining Flexible during the Evaluation: Allowing New Questions, Criteria, and Standards to Emerge Chapter 14 Planning How to Conduct the Evaluation Developing the Evaluation Plan Selecting Designs for the Evaluation Identifying Appropriate Sources of Information Identifying Appropriate Methods for Collecting Information Determining Appropriate Conditions for Collecting Information: Sampling and Procedures Determining Appropriate Methods and Techniques for Organizing, Analyzing, and Interpreting Information Determining Appropriate Ways to Report Evaluation Findings Work Sheets to Summarize an Evaluation Plan Specifying How the Evaluation Will Be Conducted: The Management Plan Estimating and Managing Time for Conducting Evaluation Tasks Analyzing Personnel Needs and Assignments Estimating Costs of Evaluation Activities and Developing Evaluation Budgets Establishing Evaluation Agreements and Contracts Planning and Conducting the Metaevaluation The Development of Metaevaluation and Its Use Today Some General Guidelines for Conducting Metaevaluations A Need for More Metaevaluation PART IV Practical Guidelines for Conducting and Using Evaluations Chapter 15 Collecting Evaluative Information: Design, Sampling, and Cost Choices Using Mixed Methods Evaluation Controversies over Methodology A Definition and Discussion of Mixed Methods Designs for Collecting Descriptive and Causal Information Descriptive Designs Case Studies Cross-Sectional Designs Time-Series Designs Causal Designs Experimental Designs Quasi-Experimental Designs Mixed Method Designs Sampling Sample Size Selecting a Random Sample Using Purposive Sampling Cost Analysis Cost Benefit Analysis Cost-Effectiveness Studies Chapter 16 Collecting Evaluative Information: Data Sources and Methods, Analysis and Interpretation Common Sources and Methods for Collecting Information Existing Documents and Records Identifying Sources and Methods for Original Data Collection: A Process Observations Surveys Interviews Focus Groups Tests and Other Methods for Assessing Knowledge and Skill Planning and Organizing the Collection of Information Technical Problems in Data Collection Analysis of Data and Interpretation of Findings Data Analysis Interpreting Data Chapter 17 Reporting Evaluation Results: Maximizing Use and Understanding Purposes of Evaluation Reporting and Reports Different Ways of Reporting Important Factors in Planning Evaluation Reporting Accuracy, Balance, and Fairness Tailoring Reports to Their Audience(s) Timing of Evaluation Reports Strategies to Communicate and Persuade Appearance of the Report Human and Humane Considerations in Reporting Evaluation Findings Delivering Negative Messages Key Components of a Written Report Executive Summary Introduction to the Report Focus of the Evaluation Brief Overview of the Evaluation Plan and Procedures Presentation of Evaluation Results Conclusions and Recommendations Minority Reports or Rejoinders Appendices Suggestions for Effective Oral Reporting A Checklist for Good Evaluation Reports How Evaluation Information Is Used Models of Use Steps To Take To Influence Evaluation Use Reporting and Influence Chapter 18 The Future Of Evaluation The Future of Evaluation Predictions Concerning the Profession of Evaluation A Vision for Evaluation Conclusion Appendix A References Author Index Subject Index

ISBN: 9780205579358
ISBN-10: 9780205579358
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 544
Published: 27th September 2010
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 24.77 x 20.32  x 3.81
Weight (kg): 1.13
Edition Number: 4