+612 9045 4394
 
CHECKOUT
Production Testing of RF and System-on-a-chip Devices for Wireless Communications : Artech House Microwave Library (Hardcover) - Keith B. Schaub

Production Testing of RF and System-on-a-chip Devices for Wireless Communications

Artech House Microwave Library (Hardcover)

Hardcover

Published: 1st March 2004
Ships: 7 to 10 business days
7 to 10 business days
RRP $329.99
$228.50
31%
OFF
or 4 easy payments of $57.13 with Learn more

This work provides an in-depth overview of cutting-edge RF and SOC (system on a chip) product testing for wireless communications.

Prefacep. xiii
Acknowledgmentsp. xvii
An Introduction to Production Testingp. 1
Introductionp. 1
Characterization Versus Production Testingp. 1
The Test Programp. 2
Production-Test Equipmentp. 2
Rack and Stackp. 2
Automated Test Equipmentp. 3
Interfacing with the Test Equipmentp. 3
Handlersp. 3
Load Boardsp. 5
Contactor Socketsp. 5
Production RF and SOC Wafer Probingp. 6
Calibrationp. 9
The Test Floor and Test Cellp. 10
Test Housesp. 10
Accuracy, Repeatability, and Correlationp. 10
Design for Testingp. 11
Built-in Self-Testp. 11
Referencesp. 12
RF and SOC Devicesp. 13
Introductionp. 13
RF Low Noise Amplifierp. 15
RF Power Amplifierp. 15
RF Mixerp. 16
RF Switchp. 19
Variable Gain Amplifierp. 20
Modulatorp. 22
Demodulatorp. 23
Transmitterp. 24
Receiverp. 24
Transceiverp. 25
Wireless Radio Architecturesp. 26
Superheterodyne Wireless Radiop. 26
Zero Intermediate Frequency Wireless Radiop. 26
Phase Locked Loopp. 28
RF and SOC Device Testsp. 30
Referencesp. 31
Cost of Testp. 33
Introductionp. 33
Wafer Processing Improves Cost of Testp. 33
Early Testing of the SOCp. 36
SCM and IDMp. 37
SOC Cost-of-Test Paradigm Shiftp. 37
Key Cost-of-Test Modeling Parametersp. 38
Fixed Costp. 39
Recurring Costp. 39
Lifetimep. 40
Utilizationp. 40
Yieldp. 41
Accuracy as It Relates to Yieldp. 42
Other Factors Influencing COTp. 45
Multisite and Parallel Testingp. 45
Test Engineer Skillp. 46
Summaryp. 46
Referencesp. 46
Production Testing of RF Devicesp. 49
Introductionp. 49
Measuring Voltage Versus Measuring Powerp. 49
Transmission Line Theory Versus Lumped-Element Analysisp. 50
The History of Power Measurementsp. 51
The Importance of Powerp. 52
Power Measurement Units and Definitionsp. 53
The Decibelp. 53
Power Expressed in dBmp. 54
Powerp. 54
Average Powerp. 55
Pulse Powerp. 56
Modulated Powerp. 56
RMS Powerp. 57
Gainp. 58
Gain Measurements of Wireless SOC Devicesp. 60
Gain Flatnessp. 61
Measuring Gain Flatnessp. 63
Automatic Gain Control Flatnessp. 65
Power-Added Efficiencyp. 67
Transfer Function for RF Devicesp. 68
Power Compressionp. 69
Mixer Conversion Compressionp. 72
Harmonic and Intermodulation Distortionp. 72
Harmonic Distortionp. 73
Intermodulation Distortionp. 75
Receiver Architecture Considerations for Intermodulation Productsp. 79
Adjacent Channel Power Ratiop. 79
The Basics of CDMAp. 79
Measuring ACPRp. 81
Filter Testingp. 82
S-Parametersp. 84
Introductionp. 84
How It Is Donep. 84
S-Parameters of a Two-Port Devicep. 85
Scalar Measurements Related to S-Parametersp. 86
S-Parameters Versus Transfer Functionp. 88
How to Realize S-Parameter Measurementsp. 89
Characteristics of a Bridgep. 89
Characteristics of a Couplerp. 90
Summaryp. 91
Referencesp. 92
VSWR, Return Loss, and Reflection Coefficientp. 93
Production Testing of SOC Devicesp. 95
Introductionp. 95
SOC Integration Levelsp. 96
Origins of Bluetoothp. 97
Introduction to Bluetoothp. 98
Frequency Hoppingp. 99
Bluetooth Modulationp. 100
Bluetooth Data Rates and Data Packetsp. 100
Adaptive Power Controlp. 102
The Parts of a Bluetooth Radiop. 102
Phase Locked Loopp. 103
Dividerp. 104
Phase Detector, Charge Pumps, and LPFp. 104
Voltage Controlled Oscillatorp. 104
How Does a PLL Work?p. 104
Synthesizer Settling Timep. 105
Testing Synthesizer Settling Time in Productionp. 106
Power Versus Timep. 106
Differential Phase Versus Timep. 110
Digital Control of an SOCp. 112
Transmitter Testsp. 113
Transmit Output Spectrump. 114
Modulation Characteristicsp. 117
Initial Carrier Frequency Tolerancep. 118
Carrier Frequency Driftp. 119
VCO Driftp. 120
Frequency Pulling and Pushingp. 120
Receiver Testsp. 124
Bit Error Ratep. 125
Bit Error Rate Methodsp. 127
Programmable Delay Line Method (XOR Method)p. 127
Field Programmable Gate Array Methodp. 128
BER Testing with a Digital Pinp. 128
BER Measurement with a Digitizerp. 130
BER Receiver Measurementsp. 132
Sensitivity BER Testp. 132
Carrier-to-Interference BER Testsp. 133
Cochannel Interference BER Testsp. 133
Adjacent Channel Interference BER Testsp. 133
Inband and Out-of-Band Blocking BER Testsp. 135
Intermodulation Interference BER Testsp. 135
Maximum Input Power Level BER Testp. 137
EVM Introductionp. 137
I/Q Diagramsp. 137
Definition of Error Vector Magnitudep. 138
Making the Measurementp. 139
Related Signal Quality Measurementsp. 141
Comparison of EVM with More Traditional Methods of Testingp. 142
Should EVM Be Used for Production Testing?p. 142
Referencesp. 143
Fundamentals of Analog and Mixed-Signal Testingp. 145
Introductionp. 145
Sampling Basics and Conventionsp. 145
DC Offsets and Peak-to-Peak Input Voltagesp. 146
The Fourier Transform and the FFTp. 147
The Fourier Seriesp. 147
The Fourier Transformp. 147
The Discrete Fourier Transformp. 149
The Fast Fourier Transformp. 150
Time-Domain and Frequency-Domain Description and Dependenciesp. 150
Negative Frequencyp. 150
Convolutionp. 151
Frequency- and Time-Domain Transformationsp. 152
Nyquist Sampling Theoryp. 154
Dynamic Measurementsp. 156
Coherent Sampling and Windowingp. 156
SNR for AWGs and Digitizersp. 159
SINAD and Harm Distortionp. 160
Static Measurementsp. 163
DC Offsetp. 163
INL/DNL for AWGs and Digitizersp. 164
Real Signals and Their Representationsp. 165
Differences Between V, W, dB, dBc, dBV, and dBmp. 165
Transformation Formulasp. 166
ENOB and Noise Floor: Similarities and Differencesp. 167
Phase Noise and Jitterp. 167
Phase Noise and How It Relates to RF Systemsp. 168
Jitter and How It Affects Samplingp. 168
I/Q Modulation and Complex FFTsp. 168
System Considerations for Accurate I/Q Characterizationp. 168
Amplitude and Phase Balance Using Complex FFTsp. 169
ZIF Receivers and DC Offsetsp. 171
System Gain with Dissimilar Input and Output Impedancesp. 171
Summaryp. 172
Referencesp. 173
Moving Beyond Production Testingp. 175
Introductionp. 175
Parallel Testing of Digital and Mixed-Signal Devicesp. 175
Parallel Testing of RF Devicesp. 175
Parallel Testing of RF SOC Devicesp. 178
True Parallel RF Testingp. 179
Pseudoparallel RF Testingp. 180
Alternative Parallel RF Testing Methodsp. 182
Guidelines for Choosing an RF Testing Methodp. 184
Interleaving Techniquep. 185
DSP Threadingp. 186
True Parallel RF Testing Cost-of-Test Advantages and Disadvantagesp. 187
Pseudoparallel RF Testing Cost-of-Test Advantages and Disadvantagesp. 188
Introduction to Concurrent Testingp. 189
Design for Testp. 190
Summaryp. 191
Referencesp. 192
Production Noise Measurementsp. 193
Introduction to Noisep. 193
Power Spectral Densityp. 193
Types of Noisep. 194
Noise Floorp. 198
Noise Figurep. 199
Noise-Figure Definitionp. 199
Noise Power Densityp. 201
Noise Sourcesp. 202
Noise Temperature and Effective Noise Temperaturep. 202
Excess Noise Ratiop. 203
Y-Factorp. 204
Mathematically Calculating Noise Figurep. 204
Measuring Noise Figurep. 205
Noise-Figure Measurements on Frequency Translating Devicesp. 209
Calculating Error in Noise-Figure Measurementsp. 210
Equipment Errorp. 211
Mismatch Errorp. 211
Production-Test Fixturingp. 212
External Interfering Signalsp. 212
Averaging and Bandwidth Considerationsp. 212
Phase Noisep. 213
Introductionp. 213
Phase-Noise Definitionp. 214
Spectral Density-Based Definition of Phase Noisep. 216
Phase Jitterp. 216
Thermal Effects on Phase Noisep. 217
Low-Power Phase-Noise Measurementp. 217
High-Power Phase-Noise Measurementp. 217
Trade-offs When Making Phase-Noise Measurementsp. 217
Making Phase-Noise Measurementsp. 218
Measuring Phase Noise with a Spectrum Analyzerp. 220
Phase-Noise Measurement Examplep. 220
Phase Noise of Fast-Switching RF Signal Sourcesp. 222
Referencesp. 222
Power and Voltage Conversionsp. 225
RF Coaxial Connectorsp. 229
List of Acronyms and Abbreviationsp. 233
List of Numerical Prefixesp. 237
About the Authorsp. 239
Indexp. 241
Table of Contents provided by Rittenhouse. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9781580536929
ISBN-10: 1580536921
Series: Artech House Microwave Library (Hardcover)
Audience: Tertiary; University or College
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 250
Published: 1st March 2004
Publisher: Artech House Publishers
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 26.0 x 17.73  x 1.5
Weight (kg): 0.69