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Process and Operation Planning : Revised Edition of the Principles of Process Planning: A Logical Approach - Gideon Halevi

Process and Operation Planning

Revised Edition of the Principles of Process Planning: A Logical Approach

Hardcover Published: 1st November 2003
ISBN: 9781402016530
Number Of Pages: 335

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Process planning detennines how a product is to be manufactured and is therefore a key element in the manufacturing process. It plays a major part in detennining the cost of components and affects all factory activities, company competitiveness, production planning, production efficiency and product quality. It is a crucial link between design and manufacturing. In spite of the importance of process planning in the manufacturing cycle, there is no fonnal methodology which can be used, or can help to train personnel for this job. Process planning activities are predominantly labor intensive, depending on the experience and the skill and intuition of the planner, and therefore often precludes a thorough analysis and optimization of the process plan which nearly always results in higher than necessary production costs, delays, errors and non-standardization of processes. Process planning is regarded as an art and not a science. Research in the field of process planning has indicated that all experts have their own expertise and one expert's experience might be different from that of another. It is rare, therefore, for two planners to produce the same process. Each process will produce the part as specified, although different processes will result in different processing times and costs. The question is, who is an expert? By definition an expert is one 'having or manifesting the knowledge, skill and experience needed for success in a particular field or endeavor', or 'one who has acquired special skill in or knowledge and mastery of something'.

Prefacep. xiii
Introduction
Introductionp. 1
The place of process planning in the manufacturing cyclep. 1
Process planning and the economic management of a companyp. 3
Process planning and production planningp. 7
Technology and Methodsp. 8
Process planning and production managementp. 8
Process planning and simultaneous engineeringp. 9
Integration of process planning and designp. 12
Summaryp. 14
Review Questionsp. 15
Further Readingp. 15
Assembly Planning and Design
Introductionp. 17
Definitionsp. 17
Why Assembly Planningp. 18
Assembly planning benefitsp. 18
Design dilemmap. 19
Assembly dilemmap. 23
What Is Assembly Oriented Planningp. 25
Definitionp. 25
Assembly techniquesp. 25
Manual assemblyp. 26
Automatic assemblyp. 26
Robotic assemblyp. 27
Comparing of robots-human and automationp. 28
Hybrid automation-manual assembly systemp. 29
Design Constraints for Assemblyp. 29
Design rulesp. 30
Reducing number of componentsp. 30
Parts variationp. 30
Kinematicsp. 31
Placing the component into a productp. 31
Orientationp. 32
Fasteningp. 32
Joining with no separate fasteners requiredp. 32
Joining requiring one separate fastener per jointp. 33
Joining requiring more than One Separate Fastenerp. 33
Joining by heatp. 34
Component Design for Placementp. 34
Component which is nearly identical on both sidesp. 34
Headed Fastenersp. 35
Components design for placementp. 35
Summaryp. 36
Review Questionsp. 37
Further Readingp. 39
Process Planning and Design
From Design to Process Planningp. 41
Review of Primary Manufacturing Processesp. 42
Forming from Liquid (casting, molding)p. 42
Forming from Solid by Deformationp. 43
Rollingp. 43
Forgingp. 43
Spinningp. 44
Powder metallurgy and plastic moldingp. 44
Forming from Solid by Material Removalp. 48
Forming by joining partsp. 49
Forming by assemblyp. 50
Forming by material increase (incress)p. 50
Design for Manufacturingp. 51
Forming from liquidp. 51
Wall thicknessp. 51
Ribs designp. 52
Corner radiip. 52
Holesp. 53
Support ribsp. 53
Bossesp. 55
Forming from solid by deformation - forgingp. 56
Forming from solid by deformation - Sheet metal press workp. 57
Bending Radiip. 57
Summaryp. 59
Review Questionsp. 59
Further Readingp. 60
Technical Drawings
Drawing Dimensioningp. 63
Dimensioning from datump. 63
Redundant dimensioningp. 63
Stack-up of tolerances by arithmetic methodp. 65
Geometric tolerancesp. 67
Geometric tolerances interpretationp. 69
Surface roughnessp. 72
Definition of surface finish methodsp. 73
Accuracy Problems in Manufacturingp. 75
Tolerancing in productionp. 75
Process to meet geometric tolerancesp. 76
Production tolerancingp. 76
Tolerances in forming operationsp. 78
Short Review of Statistical Tolerancingp. 79
Process Capabilityp. 81
Conclusionp. 82
Review Questionsp. 83
Further Readingp. 84
Selection of Primary Production Processes
Introductionp. 87
Selecting primary manufacturing processes - rough rulesp. 88
Selecting Primary Process Categoryp. 88
Monop. 89
Openp. 90
Complexp. 90
Very complexp. 91
Selecting Specific Primary Processp. 92
Selecting among Forming from Liquid processp. 92
Examplep. 94
Subsequent processesp. 95
Selecting Forming from solid by deformation processp. 96
Example 1p. 97
Example 2p. 98
Subsequent processesp. 98
Forming from solid by material removalp. 102
Forming by joining partsp. 102
Forming by assemblyp. 102
Forming by material increasep. 102
Review Questionsp. 102
Further Readingp. 104
Forming by Metal Removal
Forming by Metal Removalp. 105
Decisions and Constraintsp. 107
Basic Types of Material Removal Processesp. 110
Material Removal as a Subsequent Processp. 115
Auxiliary Tablesp. 117
Review Questionsp. 117
Positioning Workpiece and Clamping
The Technical Functions of a Fixturep. 123
Three Datum Positioning Conceptp. 124
Example of fixturep. 128
Error causes and preventing caused by the fixturep. 128
Calculation of Clamping Positions and Clamping Forcesp. 131
Chucking type on a lathep. 132
Three jaw chuckp. 132
Three jaws chuck without supportp. 134
Three jaws chuck with center supportp. 135
Chuck with colletp. 136
Chuck with four-jaw chuck (independent)p. 136
Face platep. 136
Chucking type on milling and drilling fixturesp. 136
Development of an Algorithm Simulating Design of a Fixturep. 137
Conclusions - Economic Considerations in Fixture Designp. 142
Group technology methods (GT)p. 142
Modular fixturingp. 143
Set up time reductionp. 143
Review Questionsp. 144
Further Readingp. 145
How to Determine the Type of Operation
Boundary Limit Strategyp. 147
Definition of technological constraintsp. 148
Definition of part constraintsp. 149
Definition of material constraintsp. 149
Definition of machine constraintsp. 149
Definition of tool constraintsp. 150
Definition of user constraintsp. 151
Boundary limits summaryp. 151
Analysis of Cutting Conditions vs Part Specificationsp. 152
Effect of cutting speed on surface roughnessp. 152
Effect of feed rate on surface roughnessp. 153
Turning processesp. 153
Milling processesp. 156
Effect of depth of cut on surface roughnessp. 158
Operational and Dependent Boundary Limitsp. 159
Depth of cut as a function of feed ratep. 159
Depth of cut as a function of a selected operationp. 162
The Algorithm for Selecting Cutting Operationsp. 164
Example of Using the Algorithmp. 167
Example 1p. 167
Example 2p. 169
Example 3p. 170
Review Questionsp. 171
How to Select Cutting Speed
Introductionp. 173
Sources for Selecting Cutting Speedp. 174
Machining data handbooksp. 174
Machinability ratingsp. 174
Technical booksp. 175
Tool manufacturersp. 175
Machinability computerized systemsp. 175
Cutting Speed Optimizationp. 177
Taylor equationp. 177
How effective is cutting speed optimization?p. 180
Tool life definitionp. 180
Lot size effectp. 182
Economic cutting speed for machining a partp. 182
Data for the Extended Taylor Equationp. 184
Review Questionsp. 187
How to Select a Machine for the Job
Parameters to Considerp. 191
Optimization Strategy - Two Phase Methodp. 191
Definition of the combinatorial problemp. 192
Mathematic definition of the process planning problemp. 194
Solving the problem by dynamic programming procedurep. 194
Constructing the Operation-Machine Matrixp. 196
SPC - Statistical Process Control
Introductionp. 289
Introduction to SPCp. 289
Goals and benefits of SPCp. 291
Basic Statistical Conceptsp. 292
Probability of distributionp. 295
Prerequisites for SPC - Process Capabilityp. 297
Control Chartsp. 300
Control chart parameters selectionp. 302
Interpreting Control Chart Analysisp. 303
Cause and Effect Analysis - Troubleshootingp. 306
Review Questionsp. 308
Further Readingp. 310
Process Planning and Production Management
Introductionp. 311
Process Planning Optimizationp. 311
Single operation optimizationp. 311
Part optimizationp. 312
Part optimization deviationp. 313
Product optimization - schedulingp. 314
Combination Schedulingp. 317
Scheduling with variable process planp. 318
Maximum profit process planningp. 318
Profit for a Single Itemp. 320
Constructing Relative Total Period Profit Tablep. 321
Market Researchp. 322
Setting Selling Price and Maximum Profit Routingp. 322
Testing the Algorithm Resultsp. 323
Summaryp. 324
Resource Planningp. 325
Introductionp. 325
Step 1 - Request for quotationp. 325
Step 2 - Constructing the matrixp. 326
Step 3 -Solving the matrixp. 326
Resource planningp. 327
Summaryp. 329
Indexp. 331
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9781402016530
ISBN-10: 1402016530
Audience: General
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 335
Published: 1st November 2003
Publisher: Springer-Verlag New York Inc.
Country of Publication: NL
Dimensions (cm): 23.39 x 15.6  x 2.06
Weight (kg): 0.67
Edition Type: Revised

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