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Probing the Atom : Interactions of Coupled States, Fast Beams, and Loose Electrons - Mark P. Silverman

Probing the Atom

Interactions of Coupled States, Fast Beams, and Loose Electrons


Published: 1st January 2000
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The many-faceted efforts to understand the structure and interactions of atoms over the past hundred years have contributed decisively and dramatically to the explosive development of physics. There is hardly a branch of modern physical science that does not in some seminal way rely on the fundamental principles and mathematical and experimental insights that derive from these studies. In particular, the drive to understand the singular features of the hydrogen atom--simultaneously the archetype of all atoms and the least typical atom--spurred many of the twentieth century's advances in physics and chemistry. This book gives an in-depth account of the author's own penetrating experimental and theoretical investigations of the hydrogen atom, while simultaneously providing broad lessons in the application of quantum mechanics to atomic structure and interactions.

A pioneer in the combined use of atomic accelerators and radiofrequency spectroscopy for probing the internal structure of the hydrogen atom, Mark Silverman examines the general principles behind this far-reaching experimental approach. Fast-moving protons are directed into gas or foil targets from which they capture electrons to become hydrogen atoms moving uniformly at very high speeds. During their rapid passage through the spectroscopy chamber of the atomic accelerator, these atoms reveal by the light they emit fascinating details of their internal configuration and the interactions that created them. Silverman examines the effects of radiofrequency fields on the hydrogen atom clearly and systematically, explaining the details of these interactions at different levels of complexity and refinement, each level illuminating the physical processes involved from different and complementary perspectives.

Readers interested in diverse areas of physics and physical chemistry will appreciate both the theoretical and practical implications of Silverman's studies and the personal style with which he relays them. This is a work of not only an outstanding research physicist, but a fine teacher who understands how curiosity underlies all science.

"As a comprehensive treatment of a well-defined problem, the book is an excellent choice for advanced quantum mechanics studies on atomic structure... Silverman does a masterful job of placing the required mathematics in perspective..."--Choice

Preface: In at the Beginningsp. xi
Notesp. xviii
Energies and Spectral Linesp. 3
Anatomy of Hydrogenp. 3
Shapes and Widthsp. 12
Notesp. 17
The Driven Two-Level Atomp. 19
Dynamics of a Two-Level Atomp. 19
Rotating-Wave Approximationp. 23
Oscillating-Field Theoryp. 28
Occupation Probabilitiesp. 32
Notesp. 42
The Driven Multilevel Atomp. 43
Statistical Uncertainties and the Density Matrixp. 43
Time Evolution of the Density Matrixp. 46
Generalized Resonant Field Theoryp. 48
Two-State Transitionsp. 54
Three-State Transitionsp. 56
Four-State Transitionsp. 60
Numerical Solution of the N-State Systemp. 65
Coupling Elements Vuvp. 67
Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors of Three- and Four-State Systemsp. 72
Notesp. 76
Multiple-Quantum Transitionsp. 78
The Quantized Radiofrequency Fieldp. 78
Remarks on Dipole Couplingp. 85
The Two-Level Atom (Again)p. 87
Coherent Field Statesp. 91
Triple-Quantum Transitionsp. 93
Crossings and Anticrossingsp. 94
Resolvent Operator Solutionp. 99
One- and Three-Photon Lineshapesp. 106
Semiclassical Theory of Multiphoton Transitionsp. 111
Resolvents, Propagators, and Green's Functionsp. 113
Notesp. 115
The Decay of Coupled Statesp. 117
Perspectives on Radiation Dampingp. 117
The Quantized Optical Fieldp. 118
State Amplitudes and Radiative Decay Ratesp. 122
Emission Lineshapesp. 127
Notesp. 138
Optical Detection Theoryp. 139
The Process of Detectionp. 139
The Optical Detection Functionp. 143
The Efficiency Matrixp. 147
The Optical Signalp. 153
Notesp. 158
State Selection and Lineshape Resolutionp. 160
The Use of Sequential Fieldsp. 160
Parallel Oscillating Fieldsp. 162
Nonparallel Oscillating Fieldsp. 170
Notesp. 172
Elements of Experimental Design and Applicationp. 173
General Descriptionp. 173
Ion Production and Extractionp. 175
Ion Acceleration and Focusingp. 179
Excited Atom Productionp. 184
The Radiofrequency Systemp. 187
Optical Detectionp. 196
Spectroscopyp. 197
Electron Capture and Atom Formationp. 206
The Paraxial Ray Equation for Ionsp. 214
Effect of Standing Waves on a Resonance Lineshapep. 215
Phenomenological Model of the RF Chamberp. 219
Notesp. 222
Indexp. 225
Table of Contents provided by Publisher. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780691009629
ISBN-10: 0691009627
Audience: Tertiary; University or College
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 248
Published: 1st January 2000
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 24.16 x 16.43  x 2.18
Weight (kg): 0.55