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Principles of Rock Deformation : Petrology and Structural Geology - A. Nicolas

Principles of Rock Deformation

Petrology and Structural Geology

Paperback ISBN: 9789027723697
Number Of Pages: 208

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  • Hardcover View Product Published: 31st January 1987
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Physicists attempt to reduce natural phenomena to their essential dimensions by means of simplification and approximation and to account for them by defining natural laws. Paradoxically, whilst there is a critical need in geology to reduce the overwhelming field information to its essentials, it often re- mains in an over-descriptive state. This prudent attitude of geologists is dictated by the nature of the subjects being consi- dered, as it is often difficult to derive the significant parame- ters from the raw data. It also follows from the way that geolo- gical work is carried out. Geologists proceed, as in a police investigation, by trying to reconstruct past conditions and events from an analysis of the features preserved in rocks. In physics all knowledge is based on experiment but in the Earth Sciences experimental evidence is of very limited scope and is difficult to interpret. The geologist's cautious approach in accepting evidence gained by modelling and quantification is sometimes questionable when it is taken too far. It shuts out potentially fruitful lines of advance; for instance when refu- sing order of magnitude calculations, it risks being drowned in anthropomorphic speculation. Happily nowadays, many more studies tend to separate and order the significant facts and are carried out with numerical constraints, which although they are approxi- mate in nature, limit the range of hypotheses and thus give rise to new models.

Industry Reviews

`The international standing of the author and the clarity of his explanation and illustration make the book a worthwhile addition to libraries worldwide.' Geological Magazine (about the French edition)
`... it will prove valuable not only in undergraduate structural geology courses, but also to the interested non-specialist. The book is well illustrated with abundant line diagrams.' Geophysical Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society

1. Introduction.- 2. Strain and Stress.- 2.1. Strain.- 2.1.1. Definitions.- 2.1.2. Finite strain ellipsoid.- 2.1.3. States of strain.- 2.2. Elements of Rheology.- 2.2.1. Experimental deformation.- 2.2.2. Elastic, plastic and viscous deformation.- 2.2.3. Percolation thresholds: the viscous-plastic transition.- 2.3. Stress.- 2.3.1. Stress ellipsoid.- 2.3.2. The Mohr diagram.- 2.4. Progressive Strain.- 2.5. Stress-Strain Relations.- For Further Reading.- 3. Theory of Discontinuous Deformation.- 3.1. Introduction.- 3.2. Fracture Modes and Relationship to Stress.- 3.2.1. Experimental deformation.- 3.2.2. The Mohr envelope and Coulomb's criterion.- 3.2.3. Fluid partial pressure and effective pressure.- 3.2.4. Fracturing assisted by fluid pressure.- 3.2.5. Hydraulic fracturing.- 3.3. The Brittle-Ductile Transition.- 3.3.1. The formation of microfractures.- 3.3.2. Role of the fluids-stress corrosion.- 3.3.3. Dilatancy.- For Further Reading.- 4. Mechanisms of Continuous Deformation.- 4.1. Introduction.- 4.2. Plastic Deformation in the Solid State.- 4.2.1. Flow units and mechanisms of deformation.- 4.2.2. Crystal defects.- 4.2.3. Mechanisms and processes of plastic deformation.- 4.3. Fluid Assisted Deformation.- 4.3.1. Pressure-solution.- 4.3.2. Passive rotation.- 4.3.3. Grain boundary sliding and liquefaction.- For Further Reading.- 5. Discontinuous Deformation: Structures, Interpretations.- 5.1. Introduction.- 5.2. Joints.- 5.3. Tension Fractures.- 5.4. Stylolitic Joints.- 5.5. Faults.- 5.5.1. Geometrical analysis of faults and fault systems.- 5.5.2. Internal structures of faults.- 5.5.3. Seismic and aseismic faults.- 5.5.4. Microstructural analysis of displacement.- 5.5.5. Dynamic analysis.- 5.5.6. Complex systems-fault propagation.- For Further Reading.- 6. Structures Caused by Homogeneous Deformation.- 6.1. Introduction.- 6.2. Planar Structures.- 6.2.1. Slaty cleavage and foliation.- 6.2.2. Crenulation cleavage.- 6.2.3. Fracture cleavage.- 6.2.4. Tectonic layering.- 6.2.5. Cleavage, foliation and strain ellipsoid.- 6.2.6. Cleavage, foliation and folds.- 6.3. Lineations.- 6.3.1. Mineral lineations.- 6.3.2. Aggregate lineations.- 6.3.3. Intersection lineations.- 6.3.4. Corrugation lineations.- 6.3.5. Lineations and the strain ellipsoid.- 6.3.6. Lineations and folds.- For Further Reading.- 7. Interpretation of Continuous Homogeneous Deformation Structures.- 7.1. Introduction.- 7.2. Mechanisms Responsible for the Development of Structures.- 7.2.1. Deposition and flow in a fluid.- 7.2.2. Plastic deformation.- 7.2.3. Deformation by pressure-solution.- 7.3. Interpretation of Structure Resulting from Viscous Flow.- 7.4.1. Relation between cleavage-lineation and principal stresses.- 7.4.2. Origin of crenulation cleavage.- 7.4.3. Origin of fracture cleavage.- 7.5. Interpretation of Intracrystalline Plastic Deformation Structures.- 7.5.1. Development of preferred orientations.- 7.5.2. Heterogeneous deformation of crystals.- 7.5.3. Coaxial and non-coaxial deformation.- 7.5.4. Relationships between stresses and preferred orientations.- For Further Reading.- 8. Continuous Heterogeneous Deformation: Typical Structures.- 8.1. Introduction.- 8.2. Microstructures.- 8.2.1. Crystallization in pressure fringes and pressure shadows.- 8.2.2. Minerals with snowball and sigmoidal inclusions.- 8.2.3. Mineral growth in tension fractures.- 8.3. Shear Zone.- 8.3.1. Geometric and kinematic analysis.- 8.3.2. Microstructural analysis.- 8.4. Stretch Structures; Boudinage.- For Further Reading.- 9. Folds.- 9.1. Introduction.- 9.2. Geometrical Analysis of Folds - The Case of an Isolated Surface.- 9.2.1. Morphology of folds.- 9.2.2. Orientation of folds.- 9.2.3. Systems of folds.- 9.3. Folding of an Isolated Bed.- 9.3.1. Parallel folds.- 9.3.2. Similar folds.- 9.4. Folding of a Stratified Sequence.- 9.5. Relationship of Folds to the Strain Axes.- 9.5.1. Relationship between cleavage or foliation and the axial plane.- 9.5.2. Relationships between lineations and fold axes.- 9.6. Superposed Folds.- 9.6.1. Geometrical analysis.- 9.6.2. Continuum in deformation and polyphase deformations.- For Further Reading.- Appendix I. Tensorial Analysis of Strain and Stress.- I.1. Strain.- I.1.1. Tensorial analysis.- I.1.2. Typical strain regimes.- I.2. Stress.- I.2.1. Tensorial analysis.- I.2.2. Typical stress regimes.- I.3. Elastic Deformation.- Appendix II. Measurement of Finite Strain.- II. 1. Introduction.- II.2. Definitions.- II.2.1. Strain of a linear marker.- II.2.2. Strain in simple shear.- II.2.3. Strain ellipsoid.- II.2.4. Strain ellipse.- II.2.5. Mohr circle of strain.- II.3. Determination of the Strain Ellipse.- II.3.1. Measurement of elongation.- II.3.2. Measurement of shear strain.- II.3.3. Deformed elliptical objects.- II.3.4. Variations in the distribution of point markers.- II.4. Determination of the Strain Ellipsoid.- II.4.1. Measurement of ellipses.- II.4.2. Reorientation of plano-linear markers.- II.4.3. Deformation of mineral veins.- II.5. Strain in Simple Shear.- II.5.1. Shear plane/foliation obliquity.- II.5.2. Rotation of planar markers.- II.5.3. Rotation of microstructural markers.- Appendix III. Cyclospherical Projections and Figures.- III.1. Introduction.- III.2. Definitions.- III.3. Representation of Straight Lines and Planes.- III.4. Density Diagrams.- III.5. Analysis of Density Diagrams.- For Further Reading.

ISBN: 9789027723697
ISBN-10: 9027723699
Series: Petrology and Structural Geology
Audience: General
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 208
Publisher: Springer
Country of Publication: NL
Dimensions (cm): 23.39 x 15.6  x 1.19
Weight (kg): 0.32

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