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Principles of CAD : A Coursebook - A. J. Medland

Principles of CAD : A Coursebook

Paperback Published: January 1988
ISBN: 9781850915348
Number Of Pages: 218

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Whatever the context in which a student is introduced to computer-aided design (CAD), there are certain basic principles which must be grasped. Without an understanding of these fundamentals, the student will never be able to make the optimum use of CAD technology. This book provides a thorough, authoritative and well-planned course of instruction which can be used to provide students with a sound introduction to this increasingly indispensable tool. The text is presented in the form of a series of self-contained modules which will enable the reader to design a course of direct relevance to his or her interests and needs. The modules are grouped together in eight sections, each complete with its own illustrations, exercises and lists of supplementary reading. These modules cover topics such as: the interface between the system and the user; application programs and their relationship to the design process; and various different systems. This book should be of interest to students on manufacturing, production and industrial engineering degree courses.

Section 1 The Design Process.- Module 1.1 The Relationship between Geometry and Function.- Specification of Needs.- Deriving Functions.- Geometric Form.- Geometry-based information.- Module 1.2 The Form of the Design Process.- Interdependency of Design.- Anatomy of Design.- Morphology of Design.- Over-constrained Design.- Under-constrained Design.- Module 1.3 Traditional Drawing Practices.- Communication of Engineering Information.- Drawing Representation by Drafting and CAD.- A Reference for Engineering Information.- Changing Role of the Drawing within CAD.- The Engineering Database.- Module 1.4 The Development of the CAD Industry.- Graphical Displays.- Interactive Drawing.- Styled Surfaces.- Design-based origins of CAD/CAM Systems.- Three-dimesional Modelling.- The Manufacturing Interface.- Current System Availability.- Exercises.- Section 2 System Configuration.- Module 2.1 Workstations.- Vector Display Screens.- Direct-view Storage Screens.- Raster Display Screens.- Special-purpose Facilities.- Cursor Key Input Devices.- Direct Cursor Control Devices.- Direct Pointing Devices.- Tablet and Menu Input Procedures.- Choice of Input Device.- Module 2.2 Computers-Mainframes to Micros.- Time-sharing Facilities.- Mini-computer Turnkey Systems.- Micro-computer Systems.- The Workstation Approach.- Further Changes in Computational Facilities.- Module 2.3 Output Devices.- Pictorial Output.- Terminal Printers and Plotters.- Pen Plotters.- Speed Limitations.- Electrostatic Plotters.- Laser Scanning and Microfilming.- Summary.- Module 2.4 Data Storage.- Management of Data.- Main Design File.- Direct Support Files.- Alternative Design Files.- Personal Files.- Design Approval.- Short-term Storage.- Archiving and Retrieval.- Control of Data.- Module 2.5 Networked Systems.- Independent Workstations.- Network File-handling.- Networks Reflecting the Design Process.- Exercises.- Section 3 Entity Descriptions.- Module 3.1 Points, Lines and Circular Arcs.- Cartesian Coordinates.- Nodes.- Entities.- Node and Entity Lists.- Module 3.2 Basic Geometric Manipulations.- Insertion.- Deletion.- Translation and Rotation.- Move and Copy.- Intersections and Trimming.- Storage and Retrieval.- Module 3.3 Free-form Curves 1.- Explicit and Implicit Functions.- Use of Parameters.- Ferguson Cubics.- Bezier Cubics.- More General Bezier Forms.- Problems of High Degree Curves.- Summary.- Module 3.4 Free-form Curves 2.- Homogeneous Coordinates.- The Bezier Rational Quadratic Form.- B-spline Segments.- B-spline Basis Functions.- An Example.- Some Properties and Local Control.- Module 3.5 Finding Intersections of Free-form Curves.- Iterative Solution of Simultaneous Equations.- Boxes.- Subdivision and the De Casteljau Algorithm.- The Intersection Algorithm.- Summary.- Module 3.6 Surfaces.- Ruled Surfaces.- Bezier and B-spline Patches.- Putting Patches Together.- User Interaction for Surface Creation.- Exercises.- Section 4 View Transformations.- Module 4.1 Two-dimensional Transformations-Pan, Rotate and Zoom.- Zoom.- Pan and Rotate.- Operations on the Node List.- Coordinates for the Display.- Clipping.- Module 4.2 Three-dimensional Transformation Matrices.- View Direction.- Homogeneous Coordinates.- Matrix Transformations.- A Single Form of Transform.- Module 4.3 Axial and Observer Systems.- Line of Sight.- Viewing Rotations.- Observer Coordinates.- Compound Transformations.- Order of Viewing and Display Transformations.- Module 4.4 The Use of Perspective.- The Depth Coordinate.- The Introduction of Perspective.- Matrix Form.- Effects of the Eye Coordinates.- Module 4.5 Multi-view Presentations.- Two-dimensional CAD.- Three-dimensional CAD - Only One Model.- Multiple Views from the Model.- User Interaction with Multiple Views.- Module 4.6 Advanced Viewing Techniques.- Intensity Cueing.- Graphics Processing in the Workstation.- Real-time Transformations.- Stereoscopic Techniques.- Genuine Three Dimensions.- Exercises.- Section 5 Types of CAD Modelling Systems.- Module 5.1 Two-dimensional Drafting Practice.- Orthographic Projection.- Orthogonal Planes.- First and Third Angle Projections.- Standards.- Use of CAD.- Module 5.2 Three-dimensional Wireframe Models.- Problems of Wireframe Representation.- Hidden Line Removal.- Module 5.3 Surface Modelling.- Use of Surface Patches.- Face Lists.- Surfaces Only Where Needed.- Advantages of Surface Modellers.- Module 5.4 Solid Modelling.- Volumetric and Other Properties.- Constructive Solid Geometry.- Boundary Representation.- Comparison of CSG, B-rep and Surface Modelling Approaches.- Speed of Response.- Module 5.5 Display of Solid Models.- Hidden Line and Surface Removal.- Surface Shading.- Need for High Quality Shaded Images.- Exercises.- Section 6 The User Interface.- Module 6.1 User Command Language.- Numeric Input.- Command-driven Programs.- Verb-noun Commands.- Additional Qualifiers.- Command Interpretation.- Module 6.2 Use of Menus.- Menus on the Tablet.- User Configuration of the Menu.- Special Symbols.- Function Boxes.- On-Screen Menus.- Pull-down Menus.- Module 6.3 Graphics Interface Languages.- Graphics Libraries.- Need for Tailoring a CAD System.- Use of Macros of Commands.- Graphics Interface Languages.- Two Examples.- Module 6.4 Use of Parametrics.- Parameters in Design Rules.- Use of the Graphics Interface Language.- Use of the Command Language.- Use of a Journal File.- Summary.- Exercises.- Section 7 System Effectiveness and Organization.- Module 7.1 Information Flow.- Stimulation of Design Activities.- Resource Balance.- Major Resources.- Customer-related Information.- Subcontract-related Information.- Factory output.- Internal Flows.- Downstream Manufacturing Information.- Module 7.2 Establishing Design Needs.- The Drafting Process.- Standards and Codes of Practice.- Social Interaction and Experience.- Assessing Individual Processes.- Establishing Design Needs.- Module 7.3 Identifying Benefits.- Drawing Productivity.- Intitial Savings.- Minimum Staffing Levels.- Downstream Justification.- Product Development Cycle.- Accurate Geometric Description.- Accurate Jigs and Fixtures.- Considering Alternative Designs.- Reduction in Delays.- Other Areas of Benefit.- Individual Justification.- Module 7.4 Training for Operation.- Use of Vendor Training.- Reasons Given for Limiting Training.- Skills Required.- CAD/CAM Awareness.- Training for Simple Interaction.- Full Operator Training.- System Management.- Systems Development.- On-going Training.- Module 7.5 Working Environment.- The Problems.- Air Conditioning and Heating.- Lighting.- Individual Work Areas.- Seating.- Benefits of Good Ergonomics.- Module 7.6 Design and Social Structure.- Need for Planning an Installation.- Processes to be Performed.- Pivotal Activities.- Interacting Factors.- Company Size.- Existing Level of Technology.- Departmental Structure.- Module 7.7 System Management.- Monitoring Use of Correct Procedures.- Using CAD at the Appropriate Time.- Priorities.- Maintaining the System.- System Manager - a Key Company Role.- Exercises.- Section 8 Applications Programs.- Module 8.1 Analysis-centred Applications Programs.- Finite Element Analysis.- Electronic Circuit Analysis.- Kinematic Modelling.- Printed Circuit Board Layout.- Module 8.2 Manufacturing-centred Applications Programs.- Computer-aided Manufacture.- Robotic Assembly.- Mould Design.- Module 8.3 Control-centred Applications Programs.- Expert Systems.- Further Reading.

ISBN: 9781850915348
ISBN-10: 1850915342
Audience: General
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 218
Published: January 1988
Publisher: Kluwer Academic Publishers Group
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 20.32 x 13.34  x 1.27
Weight (kg): 0.25