This study analyses evidence for pathological changes seen in the skeletal remains of early medieval populations from two countires - Britain and Germany. A total of 928 individual skeletons dated between the mid-fifth and early eighth centuries AD were studied using macroscopic techniques. Despite many similarities in disease prevalence, some striking differences between the two study populations were found. Most dental diseases, non-specific infections and acquired anaemia were more prevalent in German individuals. Some of these observations may be explained by differences in environmental factors which enhace the development of these diseases. However, most noticeable was the relatively high percentage of cranial injuries found in German individuals, and especially in males, attesting to a higher level of inter-personal violence in the early medieval period.