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Practitioner's Guide to Emotion Regulation in School-Aged Children - Gayle L. Macklem

Practitioner's Guide to Emotion Regulation in School-Aged Children

Hardcover Published: 1st November 2007
ISBN: 9780387738505
Number Of Pages: 226

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Emotional regulation has to do with a person's efforts to take charge of one's emotions. A child's access to different emotions, a child's ability to modulate or elevate the intensity of emotion that is being experienced, the length of time that a child's intense emotions last and whether or not a child can switch from one emotion to another are aspects of emotional regulation. A child's ability to learn how particular emotions are expressed in particular situations and the child's understanding of his/her own emotions are also part of this complex set of behaviors (Cole, P.M., Michel, M. K. & Teti, L. P., 1994).
Many, if not most, of the children with whom school psychologists interact regularly have difficulties with emotional regulation. Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, Asperger's Syndrome, autism, nonverbal learning disabilities, and bipolar and personality disorders have significant and often primary difficulties with emotional regulation. Unfortunately, there is little if any literature for school-based practitioners to access that is organized, practical, and readable. The text that is proposed here would meet that need.
Currently, affective or emotional regulation is clearly a significant topic in several fields. According to Watt (2004), the topic of emotion is "an exploding subject of compelling attraction to a wide range of disciplines in psychology and neuroscience." Helping children learn to regulate their emotions is, in fact, much more important than many educators and parents realize. Although the concept of affective regulation has become a buzzword among scientists, mental health workers in schools are just becoming aware of their need to understand concepts and to develop strategies for use in their work with children.
Emotional regulation during social interaction and regulation of attention are strongly related to school success both academically and socially. In fact, regulation of emotions is absolutely necessary for all sorts of adaptive functioning and general health at all ages. Both elementary and secondary teachers view children's ability to control negative emotions as crucial for success in school (Lane, K.L., Givner, C. C. & Pierson, M. R., 2004; Lane, K. L., Pierson, K. R & Givner, C. C., 2004). A child who has difficulty dampening negative emotions will most likely be at risk for developing behavioral problems or anxiety and depressive disorders (Silk, J. S., Shaw, D. D, Lane, T. J., Unikel, E. & Movacs, M., 2005).
This text will explore recent knowledge about:

  • Emotion and the brain.
  • The conditions of early childhood that influence emotional regulation.
  • How a child learns to regulate emotions.
  • What happens when emotional regulation goes awry and becomes dysregulated.

The text will examine the concept of affective style and how negative emotionality or reactivity and emotional regulation can interfere with social competency as well as academic and behavioral competency.
Because poorly regulated children are at risk for serious adjustment difficulties, school psychologists need strategies to help children improve in self-regulatory skills. Knowledge about how to help children access a range of emotions, to modulate the intensity of emotion, and to shift from one emotional state to another is a critical need. In addition, school psychologists and other mental health workers need to learn how to help parents understand their vital role in influencing the development of self-regulatory skills in their children.
This text will also review the more extreme disorders of emotional regulation because understanding children who experience the most extreme difficulties with emotional regulation can help us develop interventions for children whose issues are less intense.
As society becomes more stressful and complex, while at the same time the demands for performance increase, school-aged children are at increasing risk for adjustment difficulties. School psychologists and other mental health workers in schools are hungry for concrete approaches to help children develop relationships, to be more successful in the classroom and in the peer group. Most important, this text will contain many practical strategies for helping children, their families and their teachers to help children more successfully negotiate their worlds on a day-to-day basis.

Figuresp. xiii
Introductionp. xvii
The Importance of Emotion Regulation in Child and Adolescent Functioning and School Successp. 1
Emotion Regulationp. 1
Definitions of Emotion Regulationp. 2
Emotion Regulation and Related Conceptsp. 3
Emotion Regulation versus Emotional Regulationp. 3
Affect Regulationp. 4
Moodp. 4
Coping and Stress Reductionp. 4
Self-Controlp. 5
Effortful Controlp. 5
Domains of Emotion Regulationp. 6
Importance of Emotion Regulationp. 8
Current Research on Emotion Regulationp. 8
Relevance for School Psychologists and Other Practitionersp. 9
Emotional Dysregulation: Emotion Regulation Gone Wrongp. 13
Underdeveloped Emotion Regulationp. 13
Physiological Symptoms and Disordersp. 14
Role of Emotional Dysregulation in Many Childhood Disordersp. 15
Borderline Personality Disorderp. 16
Autism Spectrum Disordersp. 17
Bipolar Disorderp. 17
Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorderp. 17
Aggressive Studentsp. 18
Internalizing Disordersp. 18
Generalized Anxiety Disorderp. 19
Depressive Disordersp. 19
Negative Emotionality, Effortful Control, and Attentionp. 20
Implications for Helping Students in Schoolsp. 23
Understanding the Biology of Emotion and Using this Knowledge to Develop Interventionsp. 25
Brain-Body Connectionsp. 25
Affective Stylep. 25
Developmental Changes in the Brainp. 26
Brain Structuresp. 27
The Amygdalap. 27
The Prefrontal Cortexp. 29
The Hippocampusp. 30
Response to Stressp. 31
Emotion Regulation, Stress, and Impulse Controlp. 32
Implicationsp. 33
Development of Emotion Regulation in Young Childrenp. 39
Influences on Emotion Developmentp. 39
The Influence of Temperamentp. 39
Emotion Regulatory Aspects of Temperamentp. 41
Development during the Infant and Toddler Periodp. 43
Emergence of Languagep. 44
Preschool Periodp. 44
Implicationsp. 47
Parenting and Emotion Regulationp. 49
The Effect of Parenting on Children's Emotional Developmentp. 49
Parenting Stylesp. 50
Positive Parentingp. 51
Family Expressivenessp. 53
Parent 'Talk' about Emotionsp. 53
Parents' Reactions to Negative Emotionsp. 55
Emotion Coachingp. 56
Parental Approach and Avoidancep. 58
Parent Trainingp. 59
Repair Strategiesp. 60
Cognitive-Behavioral Trainingp. 60
Emotion Regulation in the Classroomp. 63
Social-Emotional Adjustment and Academic Successp. 63
Academics and Emotionsp. 63
Self-Regulation of Attentionp. 64
Academic Emotionsp. 65
Test Anxietyp. 66
Student-Teacher Relationshipsp. 68
Classroom Climatep. 71
Social-Emotional Development and Schoolingp. 72
Emotion Regulation Can Be Strengthenedp. 75
Programs that Address Emotion Regulation to Varying Degreesp. 77
Second Stepp. 77
PATHSp. 78
Dinosaur Schoolp. 79
Strong Kids/Strong Teensp. 80
Beyondbluep. 80
Making Choices: Social Problem Solving for Childrenp. 80
A New Projectp. 81
Promising Resourcesp. 81
Emotion Regulation and Social Functioning in the Context of the Peer Groupp. 83
Social Functioningp. 83
The Influence of the Peer Groupp. 84
Display Rulesp. 86
Empathyp. 88
Effects of Rejection on Emotion Regulationp. 89
Bullyingp. 92
Victims of Bullyingp. 93
Interventionsp. 95
Universal Programs to Improve Empathyp. 95
Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies (PATHS)p. 96
Programs that Include Empathy Training Componentsp. 96
An Unusual Programp. 97
Antibullying Programsp. 97
Curricula for Small Groupsp. 98
Interventions Involving Teachersp. 98
Regulating Positive and Negative Emotions: Adaptive and Non-Adaptive Reactions to Stressp. 99
Coping with Stressp. 99
Coping Stylesp. 101
Specific Emotion Regulation Strategiesp. 103
Antecedent- and Response-Focused Emotion Regulationp. 104
Less Healthy Down Regulation Strategiesp. 105
Suppressionp. 105
Ruminationp. 106
Avoidancep. 107
Negative Self-Thinkingp. 108
Healthier Down-Regulating Strategiesp. 108
Engaging in Pleasant Activitiesp. 108
Positive Reappraisalp. 109
Mindfulnessp. 109
Approaches to Improve Self-Regulationp. 109
Dialectical Behavior Therapyp. 111
Recent Approaches to Help Children and Adolescentsp. 112
Treatments for Internalizing Problemsp. 113
Interventions for Depressionp. 114
Interventions for Anxietyp. 115
Treatments for Angry Externalizing Behaviorsp. 116
Anger Managementp. 120
Strategies for Parents and Teachers: Strengthening Skills for Parents and Teachers to Help Students Regulate Emotionsp. 123
Engaging Adults to Help Childrenp. 123
Reacting to Negative Emotions in Childrenp. 124
Matching Children's Temperamentsp. 126
Discussions about Emotionp. 127
Emotion Coachingp. 130
School Stressp. 133
Classroom Climatep. 134
Strategies for Teaching Emotion Regulationp. 134
Diverse Populationsp. 139
Gender Variablesp. 141
Identified Childrenp. 142
Adapting Interventions for Use with School-Aged Childrenp. 143
Need for Adaptationsp. 143
Adapting Intervention Tools for Practicep. 143
Cognitive Behavioral Therapyp. 143
Adaptations of Cognitive Toolsp. 145
Mantrasp. 152
Self-Talkp. 153
Acceptancep. 153
Social Problem Solvingp. 154
Exposure and Fear Hierarchiesp. 154
Power Card Strategyp. 159
Meditationp. 159
"As If" Techniquep. 160
Accommodations for English Language Learnersp. 160
Tools for Teaching Strategiesp. 160
Quick Toolsp. 163
The Intervention Process: Strengthening Interventions in the School Settingp. 169
Planning Interventions to Improve Students' Emotion Regulationp. 169
Identifying Students Who Have to Improve Their Emotion Regulationp. 170
Tools for School Psychologistsp. 170
Planning Interventionsp. 172
Matching Interventions to Students' Needs and Abilitiesp. 176
Triggersp. 177
Goal Settingp. 177
Planning for Generalizationp. 178
Self-Recording and Self-Monitoringp. 181
Summaryp. 184
Referencesp. 185
Postscriptp. 219
Subject Indexp. 221
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780387738505
ISBN-10: 0387738509
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 226
Published: 1st November 2007
Publisher: Springer-Verlag New York Inc.
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 23.5 x 15.5  x 2.08
Weight (kg): 1.16