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Practical Process Control for Engineers and Technicians : Practical Professional Books - Altmann

Practical Process Control for Engineers and Technicians

Practical Professional Books

By: Altmann

Paperback

Published: 17th March 2005
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This book is aimed at engineers and technicians who need to have a clear, practical understanding of the essentials of process control, loop tuning and how to optimize the operation of their particular plant or process. The reader would typically be involved in the design, implementation and upgrading of industrial control systems. Mathematical theory has been kept to a minimum with the emphasis throughout on practical applications and useful information.
This book will enable the reader to:
* Specify and design the loop requirements for a plant using PID control
* Identify and apply the essential building blocks in automatic control
* Apply the procedures for open and closed loop tuning
* Tune control loops with significant dead-times
* Demonstrate a clear understanding of analog process control and how to tune analog loops
* Explain concepts used by major manufacturers who use the most up-to-date technology in the process control field
-A practical focus on the optimization of process and plant
-Readers develop professional competencies, not just theoretical knowledge
-Reduce dead-time with loop tuning techniques

"This book is aimed at engineers and technicians who need to have a clear, practical understanding of the essentials of process control, loop tuning and how to optimize the operation of their particular plant or process." - Chemical Engineering Progress

Prefacep. xi
Introductionp. 1
Objectivesp. 1
Introductionp. 1
Basic definitions and terms used in process controlp. 2
Process modelingp. 2
Process dynamics and time constantsp. 5
Types or modes of operation of process control systemsp. 13
Closed loop controller and process gain calculationsp. 15
Proportional, integral and derivative control modesp. 16
An introduction to cascade controlp. 16
Process measurement and transducersp. 18
Objectivesp. 18
The definition of transducers and sensorsp. 18
Listing of common measured variablesp. 18
The common characteristics of transducersp. 19
Sensor dynamicsp. 21
Selection of sensing devicesp. 21
Temperature sensorsp. 22
Pressure transmittersp. 28
Flow metersp. 35
Level transmittersp. 42
The spectrum of user models in measuring transducersp. 44
Instrumentation and transducer considerationsp. 45
Selection criteria and considerationsp. 48
Introduction to the smart transmitterp. 50
Basic principles of control valves and actuatorsp. 52
Objectivesp. 52
An overview of eight of the most basic types of control valvesp. 52
Control valve gain, characteristics, distortion and rangeabilityp. 67
Control valve actuatorsp. 71
Control valve positionersp. 76
Valve sizingp. 76
Fundamentals of control systemsp. 78
Objectivesp. 78
On-off controlp. 78
Modulating controlp. 79
Open loop controlp. 79
Closed loop controlp. 81
Deadtime processesp. 84
Process responsesp. 85
Dead zonep. 86
Stability and control modes of closed loopsp. 87
Objectivesp. 87
The industrial process in practicep. 87
Dynamic behavior of the feed heaterp. 88
Major disturbances of the feed heaterp. 88
Stabilityp. 89
Proportional controlp. 90
Integral controlp. 93
Derivative controlp. 95
Proportional, integral and derivative modesp. 98
I.S.A vs 'Allen Bradley'p. 98
P, I and D relationships and related interactionsp. 98
Applications of process control modesp. 99
Typical PID controller outputsp. 99
Digital control principlesp. 100
Objectivesp. 100
Digital vs analog: a revision of their definitionsp. 100
Action in digital control loopsp. 100
Identifying functions in the frequency domainp. 101
The need for digital controlp. 103
Scanned calculationsp. 105
Proportional controlp. 105
Integral controlp. 105
Derivative controlp. 106
Lead function as derivative controlp. 106
Example of incremental form (Siemens S5-100 V)p. 107
Real and ideal PID controllersp. 108
Objectivesp. 108
Comparative descriptions of real and ideal controllersp. 108
Description of the ideal or the non-interactive PID controllerp. 108
Description of the real (Interactive) PID controllerp. 109
Lead function - derivative control with filterp. 110
Derivative action and effects of noisep. 110
Example of the KENT K90 controllers PID algorithmsp. 111
Tuning of PID controllers in both open and closed loop control systemsp. 112
Objectivesp. 112
Objectives of tuningp. 112
Reaction curve method (Ziegler-Nichols)p. 114
Ziegler-Nichols open loop tuning method (1)p. 116
Ziegler-Nichols open loop method (2) using POIp. 117
Loop time constant (LTC) methodp. 119
Hysteresis problems that may be encountered in open loop tuningp. 120
Continuous cycling method (Ziegler-Nichols)p. 120
Damped cycling tuning methodp. 123
Tuning for no overshoot on start-up (Pessen)p. 126
Tuning for some overshoot on start-up (Pessen)p. 127
Summary of important closed loop tuning algorithmsp. 127
PID equations: dependent and independent gainsp. 127
Controller output modes, operating equations and cascade controlp. 131
Objectivesp. 131
Controller outputp. 131
Multiple controller outputsp. 132
Saturation and non-saturation of output limitsp. 133
Cascade controlp. 134
Initialization of a cascade systemp. 136
Equations relating to controller configurationsp. 136
Application notes on the use of equation typesp. 139
Tuning of a cascade control loopp. 140
Cascade control with multiple secondariesp. 141
Concepts and applications of feedforward controlp. 142
Objectivesp. 142
Application and definition of feedforward controlp. 142
Manual feedforward controlp. 143
Automatic feedforward controlp. 143
Examples of feedforward controllersp. 144
Time matching as feedforward controlp. 144
Combined feedback and feedforward controlp. 147
Objectivesp. 147
The feedforward conceptp. 147
The feedback conceptp. 147
Combining feedback and feedforward controlp. 148
Feedback-feedforward summerp. 148
Initialization of a combined feedback and feedforward control systemp. 149
Tuning aspectsp. 149
Long process deadtime in closed loop control and the Smith Predictorp. 150
Objectivesp. 150
Process deadtimep. 150
An example of process deadtimep. 151
The Smith Predictor modelp. 152
The Smith Predictor in theoretical usep. 153
The Smith Predictor in realityp. 153
An exercise in deadtime compensationp. 154
Basic principles of fuzzy logic and neural networksp. 155
Objectivesp. 155
Introduction to fuzzy logicp. 155
What is fuzzy logic?p. 156
What does fuzzy logic do?p. 156
The rules of fuzzy logicp. 156
Fuzzy logic example using five rules and patchesp. 158
The Achilles heel of fuzzy logicp. 159
Neural networksp. 159
Neural back propagation networkingp. 161
Training a neuron networkp. 162
Conclusions and then the next stepp. 163
Self-tuning intelligent control and statistical process controlp. 165
Objectivesp. 165
Self-tuning controllersp. 165
Gain scheduling controllerp. 166
Implementation requirements for self-tuning controllersp. 167
Statistical process control (SPC)p. 167
Two ways to improve a production processp. 168
Obtaining the information required for SPCp. 169
Calculating control limitsp. 173
The logic behind control chartsp. 175
Some Laplace transform pairsp. 176
Block diagram transformation theoremsp. 179
Detail displayp. 181
Auxiliary displayp. 185
Configuring a tuning exercise in a controllerp. 188
Installation of simulation softwarep. 190
Operation of simulation softwarep. 193
Configurationp. 197
General syntax of configuration commandsp. 198
Configuration commandsp. 199
Algorithmsp. 208
Background graphics designp. 223
Configuration examplep. 224
Introduction to exercisesp. 229
Flow control loop - basic examplep. 231
Proportional (P) control- flow chartp. 234
Integral (I) Control - flow controlp. 237
Proportional and integral (PI) control - flow controlp. 240
Introduction to derivative (D) controlp. 242
Practical introduction into stability aspectsp. 246
Open loop method - tuning exercisep. 252
Closed loop method - tuning exercisep. 256
Saturation and non-saturation output limitsp. 260
Ideal derivative action - ideal PIDp. 263
Cascade controlp. 267
Cascade control with one primary and two secondariesp. 271
Combined feedback and feedforward controlp. 276
Deadtime compensation in feedback controlp. 279
Static value alarmp. 284
Indexp. 286
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780750664004
ISBN-10: 0750664002
Series: Practical Professional Books
Audience: Professional
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 304
Published: 17th March 2005
Publisher: Elsevier Science & Technology
Country of Publication: GB
Dimensions (cm): 26.6 x 19.8  x 2.4
Weight (kg): 0.73