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Power Generation, Operation, and Control - Allen J. Wood

Power Generation, Operation, and Control

Hardcover Published: 18th November 2013
ISBN: 9780471790556
Number Of Pages: 656

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A thoroughly revised new edition of the definitive work on power systems best practices

In this eagerly awaited new edition, Power Generation, Operation, and Control continues to provide engineers and academics with a complete picture of the techniques used in modern power system operation. Long recognized as the standard reference in the field, the book has been thoroughly updated to reflect the enormous changes that have taken place in the electric power industry since the Second Edition was published seventeen years ago.

With an emphasis on both the engineering and economic aspects of energy management, the Third Edition introduces central "terminal" characteristics for thermal and hydroelectric power generation systems, along with new optimization techniques for tackling real-world operating problems. Readers will find a range of algorithms and methods for performing integrated economic, network, and generating system analysis, as well as modern methods for power system analysis, operation, and control. Special features include:

  • State-of-the-art topics such as market simulation, multiple market analysis, contract and market bidding, and other business topics
  • Chapters on generation with limited energy supply, power flow control, power system security, and more
  • An introduction to regulatory issues, renewable energy, and other evolving topics
  • New worked examples and end-of-chapter problems
  • A companion website with additional materials, including MATLAB programs and power system sample data sets

Without a doubt, this book makes admirable progress inintegrating the -traditional with the new, and, as such, it isa worthy addition to professional libraries. It is a valuable textfor a one- or two-course sequence in a graduate curriculum in powersystems. Reasonable resource support for both student andinstructor is available through the publisher. (IEEE, 1 July 2014)

Preface to the Third Edition xvii Preface to the Second Edition xix Preface to the First Edition xxi Acknowledgment xxiii 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Purpose of the Course / 1 1.2 Course Scope / 2 1.3 Economic Importance / 2 1.4 Deregulation: Vertical to Horizontal / 3 1.5 Problems: New and Old / 3 1.6 Characteristics of Steam Units / 6 1.6.1 Variations in Steam Unit Characteristics / 10 1.6.2 Combined Cycle Units / 13 1.6.3 Cogeneration Plants / 14 1.6.4 Light-Water Moderated Nuclear Reactor Units / 17 1.6.5 Hydroelectric Units / 18 1.6.6 Energy Storage / 21 1.7 Renewable Energy / 22 1.7.1 Wind Power / 23 1.7.2 Cut-In Speed / 23 1.7.3 Rated Output Power and Rated Output Wind Speed / 24 1.7.4 Cut-Out Speed / 24 1.7.5 Wind Turbine Efficiency or Power Coefficient / 24 1.7.6 Solar Power / 25 APPENDIX 1A Typical Generation Data / 26 APPENDIX 1B Fossil Fuel Prices / 28 APPENDIX 1C Unit Statistics / 29 References for Generation Systems / 31 Further Reading / 31 2 Industrial Organization, Managerial Economics, and Finance 35 2.1 Introduction / 35 2.2 Business Environments / 36 2.2.1 Regulated Environment / 37 2.2.2 Competitive Market Environment / 38 2.3 Theory of the Firm / 40 2.4 Competitive Market Solutions / 42 2.5 Supplier Solutions / 45 2.5.1 Supplier Costs / 46 2.5.2 Individual Supplier Curves / 46 2.5.3 Competitive Environments / 47 2.5.4 Imperfect Competition / 51 2.5.5 Other Factors / 52 2.6 Cost of Electric Energy Production / 53 2.7 Evolving Markets / 54 2.7.1 Energy Flow Diagram / 57 2.8 Multiple Company Environments / 58 2.8.1 Leontief Model: Input--Output Economics / 58 2.8.2 Scarce Fuel Resources / 60 2.9 Uncertainty and Reliability / 61 PROBLEMS / 61 Reference / 62 3 Economic Dispatch of Thermal Units and Methods of Solution 63 3.1 The Economic Dispatch Problem / 63 3.2 Economic Dispatch with Piecewise Linear Cost Functions / 68 3.3 LP Method / 69 3.3.1 Piecewise Linear Cost Functions / 69 3.3.2 Economic Dispatch with LP / 71 3.4 The Lambda Iteration Method / 73 3.5 Economic Dispatch Via Binary Search / 76 3.6 Economic Dispatch Using Dynamic Programming / 78 3.7 Composite Generation Production Cost Function / 81 3.8 Base Point and Participation Factors / 85 3.9 Thermal System Dispatching with Network Losses Considered / 88 3.10 The Concept of Locational Marginal Price (LMP) / 92 3.11 Auction Mechanisms / 95 3.11.1 PJM Incremental Price Auction as a Graphical Solution / 95 3.11.2 Auction Theory Introduction / 98 3.11.3 Auction Mechanisms / 100 3.11.4 English (First-Price Open-Cry = Ascending) / 101 3.11.5 Dutch (Descending) / 103 3.11.6 First-Price Sealed Bid / 104 3.11.7 Vickrey (Second-Price Sealed Bid) / 105 3.11.8 All Pay (e.g., Lobbying Activity) / 105 APPENDIX 3A Optimization Within Constraints / 106 APPENDIX 3B Linear Programming (LP) / 117 APPENDIX 3C Non-Linear Programming / 128 APPENDIX 3D Dynamic Programming (DP) / 128 APPENDIX 3E Convex Optimization / 135 PROBLEMS / 138 References / 146 4 Unit Commitment 147 4.1 Introduction / 147 4.1.1 Economic Dispatch versus Unit Commitment / 147 4.1.2 Constraints in Unit Commitment / 152 4.1.3 Spinning Reserve / 152 4.1.4 Thermal Unit Constraints / 153 4.1.5 Other Constraints / 155 4.2 Unit Commitment Solution Methods / 155 4.2.1 Priority-List Methods / 156 4.2.2 Lagrange Relaxation Solution / 157 4.2.3 Mixed Integer Linear Programming / 166 4.3 Security-Constrained Unit Commitment (SCUC) / 167 4.4 Daily Auctions Using a Unit Commitment / 167 APPENDIX 4A Dual Optimization on a Nonconvex Problem / 167 APPENDIX 4B Dynamic-Programming Solution to Unit Commitment / 173 4B.1 Introduction / 173 4B.2 Forward DP Approach / 174 PROBLEMS / 182 5 Generation with Limited Energy Supply 187 5.1 Introduction / 187 5.2 Fuel Scheduling / 188 5.3 Take-or-Pay Fuel Supply Contract / 188 5.4 Complex Take-or-Pay Fuel Supply Models / 194 5.4.1 Hard Limits and Slack Variables / 194 5.5 Fuel Scheduling by Linear Programming / 195 5.6 Introduction to Hydrothermal Coordination / 202 5.6.1 Long-Range Hydro-Scheduling / 203 5.6.2 Short-Range Hydro-Scheduling / 204 5.7 Hydroelectric Plant Models / 204 5.8 Scheduling Problems / 207 5.8.1 Types of Scheduling Problems / 207 5.8.2 Scheduling Energy / 207 5.9 The Hydrothermal Scheduling Problem / 211 5.9.1 Hydro-Scheduling with Storage Limitations / 211 5.9.2 Hydro-Units in Series (Hydraulically Coupled) / 216 5.9.3 Pumped-Storage Hydroplants / 218 5.10 Hydro-Scheduling using Linear Programming / 222 APPENDIX 5A Dynamic-Programming Solution to hydrothermal Scheduling / 225 5.A.1 Dynamic Programming Example / 227 5.A.1.1 Procedure / 228 5.A.1.2 Extension to Other Cases / 231 5.A.1.3 Dynamic-Programming Solution to Multiple Hydroplant Problem / 232 PROBLEMS / 234 6 Transmission System Effects 243 6.1 Introduction / 243 6.2 Conversion of Equipment Data to Bus and Branch Data / 247 6.3 Substation Bus Processing / 248 6.4 Equipment Modeling / 248 6.5 Dispatcher Power Flow for Operational Planning / 251 6.6 Conservation of Energy (Tellegen's Theorem) / 252 6.7 Existing Power Flow Techniques / 253 6.8 The Newton--Raphson Method Using the Augmented Jacobian Matrix / 254 6.8.1 Power Flow Statement / 254 6.9 Mathematical Overview / 257 6.10 AC System Control Modeling / 259 6.11 Local Voltage Control / 259 6.12 Modeling of Transmission Lines and Transformers / 259 6.12.1 Transmission Line Flow Equations / 259 6.12.2 Transformer Flow Equations / 260 6.13 HVDC links / 261 6.13.1 Modeling of HVDC Converters and FACT Devices / 264 6.13.2 Definition of Angular Relationships in HVDC Converters / 264 6.13.3 Power Equations for a Six-Pole HVDC Converter / 264 6.14 Brief Review of Jacobian Matrix Processing / 267 6.15 Example 6A: AC Power Flow Case / 269 6.16 The Decoupled Power Flow / 271 6.17 The Gauss--Seidel Method / 275 6.18 The "DC" or Linear Power Flow / 277 6.18.1 DC Power Flow Calculation / 277 6.18.2 Example 6B: DC Power Flow Example on the Six-Bus Sample System / 278 6.19 Unified Eliminated Variable Hvdc Method / 278 6.19.1 Changes to Jacobian Matrix Reduced / 279 6.19.2 Control Modes / 280 6.19.3 Analytical Elimination / 280 6.19.4 Control Mode Switching / 283 6.19.5 Bipolar and 12-Pulse Converters / 283 6.20 Transmission Losses / 284 6.20.1 A Two-Generator System Example / 284 6.20.2 Coordination Equations, Incremental Losses, and Penalty Factors / 286 6.21 Discussion of Reference Bus Penalty Factors / 288 6.22 Bus Penalty Factors Direct from the AC Power Flow / 289 PROBLEMS / 291 7 Power System Security 296 7.1 Introduction / 296 7.2 Factors Affecting Power System Security / 301 7.3 Contingency Analysis: Detection of Network Problems / 301 7.3.1 Generation Outages / 301 7.3.2 Transmission Outages / 302 xii contents 7.4 An Overview of Security Analysis / 306 7.4.1 Linear Sensitivity Factors / 307 7.5 Monitoring Power Transactions Using "Flowgates" / 313 7.6 Voltage Collapse / 315 7.6.1 AC Power Flow Methods / 317 7.6.2 Contingency Selection / 320 7.6.3 Concentric Relaxation / 323 7.6.4 Bounding / 325 7.6.5 Adaptive Localization / 325 APPENDIX 7A AC Power Flow Sample Cases / 327 APPENDIX 7B Calculation of Network Sensitivity Factors / 336 7B.1 Calculation of PTDF Factors / 336 7B.2 Calculation of LODF Factors / 339 7B.2.1 Special Cases / 341 7B.3 Compensated PTDF Factors / 343 Problems / 343 References / 349 8 Optimal Power Flow 350 8.1 Introduction / 350 8.2 The Economic Dispatch Formulation / 351 8.3 The Optimal Power Flow Calculation Combining Economic Dispatch and the Power Flow / 352 8.4 Optimal Power Flow Using the DC Power Flow / 354 8.5 Example 8A: Solution of the DC Power Flow OPF / 356 8.6 Example 8B: DCOPF with Transmission Line Limit Imposed / 361 8.7 Formal Solution of the DCOPF / 365 8.8 Adding Line Flow Constraints to the Linear Programming Solution / 365 8.8.1 Solving the DCOPF Using Quadratic Programming / 367 8.9 Solution of the ACOPF / 368 8.10 Algorithms for Solution of the ACOPF / 369 8.11 Relationship Between LMP, Incremental Losses, and Line Flow Constraints / 376 8.11.1 Locational Marginal Price at a Bus with No Lines Being Held at Limit / 377 8.11.2 Locational Marginal Price with a Line Held at its Limit / 378 8.12 Security-Constrained OPF / 382 8.12.1 Security Constrained OPF Using the DC Power Flow and Quadratic Programming / 384 8.12.2 DC Power Flow / 385 8.12.3 Line Flow Limits / 385 8.12.4 Contingency Limits / 386 APPENDIX 8A Interior Point Method / 391 APPENDIX 8B Data for the 12-Bus System / 393 APPENDIX 8C Line Flow Sensitivity Factors / 395 APPENDIX 8D Linear Sensitivity Analysis of the AC Power Flow / 397 PROBLEMS / 399 9 Introduction to State Estimation in Power Systems 403 9.1 Introduction / 403 9.2 Power System State Estimation / 404 9.3 Maximum Likelihood Weighted Least-Squares Estimation / 408 9.3.1 Introduction / 408 9.3.2 Maximum Likelihood Concepts / 410 9.3.3 Matrix Formulation / 414 9.3.4 An Example of Weighted Least-Squares State Estimation / 417 9.4 State Estimation of an Ac Network / 421 9.4.1 Development of Method / 421 9.4.2 Typical Results of State Estimation on an AC Network / 424 9.5 State Estimation by Orthogonal Decomposition / 428 9.5.1 The Orthogonal Decomposition Algorithm / 431 9.6 An Introduction to Advanced Topics in State Estimation / 435 9.6.1 Sources of Error in State Estimation / 435 9.6.2 Detection and Identification of Bad Measurements / 436 9.6.3 Estimation of Quantities Not Being Measured / 443 9.6.4 Network Observability and Pseudo-measurements / 444 9.7 The Use of Phasor Measurement Units (PMUS) / 447 9.8 Application of Power Systems State Estimation / 451 9.9 Importance of Data Verification and Validation / 454 9.10 Power System Control Centers / 454 APPENDIX 9A Derivation of Least-Squares Equations / 456 9A.1 The Overdetermined Case (Nm > Ns) / 457 9A.2 The Fully Determined Case (Nm = Ns) / 462 9A.3 The Underdetermined Case (Nm < Ns) / 462 PROBLEMS / 464 10 Control of Generation 468 10.1 Introduction / 468 10.2 Generator Model / 470 10.3 Load Model / 473 10.4 Prime-Mover Model / 475 10.5 Governor Model / 476 10.6 Tie-Line Model / 481 10.7 Generation Control / 485 10.7.1 Supplementary Control Action / 485 10.7.2 Tie-Line Control / 486 10.7.3 Generation Allocation / 489 10.7.4 Automatic Generation Control (AGC) Implementation / 491 10.7.5 AGC Features / 495 10.7.6 NERC Generation Control Criteria / 496 PROBLEMS / 497 References / 500 11 Interchange, Pooling, Brokers, and Auctions 501 11.1 Introduction / 501 11.2 Interchange Contracts / 504 11.2.1 Energy / 504 11.2.2 Dynamic Energy / 506 11.2.3 Contingent / 506 11.2.4 Market Based / 507 11.2.5 Transmission Use / 508 11.2.6 Reliability / 517 11.3 Energy Interchange between Utilities / 517 11.4 Interutility Economy Energy Evaluation / 521 11.5 Interchange Evaluation with Unit Commitment / 522 11.6 Multiple Utility Interchange Transactions--Wheeling / 523 11.7 Power Pools / 526 11.8 The Energy-Broker System / 529 11.9 Transmission Capability General Issues / 533 11.10 Available Transfer Capability and Flowgates / 535 11.10.1 Definitions / 536 11.10.2 Process / 539 11.10.3 Calculation ATC Methodology / 540 11.11 Security Constrained Unit Commitment (SCUC) / 550 11.11.1 Loads and Generation in a Spot Market Auction / 550 11.11.2 Shape of the Two Functions / 552 11.11.3 Meaning of the Lagrange Multipliers / 553 11.11.4 The Day-Ahead Market Dispatch / 554 11.12 Auction Emulation using Network LP / 555 11.13 Sealed Bid Discrete Auctions / 555 PROBLEMS / 560 12 Short-Term Demand Forecasting 566 12.1 Perspective / 566 12.2 Analytic Methods / 569 12.3 Demand Models / 571 12.4 Commodity Price Forecasting / 572 12.5 Forecasting Errors / 573 12.6 System Identification / 573 12.7 Econometric Models / 574 12.7.1 Linear Environmental Model / 574 12.7.2 Weather-Sensitive Models / 576 12.8 Time Series / 578 12.8.1 Time Series Models Seasonal Component / 578 12.8.2 Auto-Regressive (AR) / 580 12.8.3 Moving Average (MA) / 581 12.8.4 Auto-Regressive Moving Average (ARMA): Box-Jenkins / 582 12.8.5 Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving-Average (ARIMA): Box-Jenkins / 584 12.8.6 Others (ARMAX, ARIMAX, SARMAX, NARMA) / 585 12.9 Time Series Model Development / 585 12.9.1 Base Demand Models / 586 12.9.2 Trend Models / 586 12.9.3 Linear Regression Method / 586 12.9.4 Seasonal Models / 588 12.9.5 Stationarity / 588 12.9.6 WLS Estimation Process / 590 12.9.7 Order and Variance Estimation / 591 12.9.8 Yule-Walker Equations / 592 12.9.9 Durbin-Levinson Algorithm / 595 12.9.10 Innovations Estimation for MA and ARMA Processes / 598 12.9.11 ARIMA Overall Process / 600 12.10 Artificial Neural Networks / 603 12.10.1 Introduction to Artificial Neural Networks / 604 12.10.2 Artificial Neurons / 605 12.10.3 Neural network applications / 606 12.10.4 Hopfield Neural Networks / 606 12.10.5 Feed-Forward Networks / 607 12.10.6 Back-Propagation Algorithm / 610 12.10.7 Interior Point Linear Programming Algorithms / 613 12.11 Model Integration / 614 12.12 Demand Prediction / 614 12.12.1 Hourly System Demand Forecasts / 615 12.12.2 One-Step Ahead Forecasts / 615 12.12.3 Hourly Bus Demand Forecasts / 616 12.13 Conclusion / 616 PROBLEMS / 617 Index 620

ISBN: 9780471790556
ISBN-10: 0471790559
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 656
Published: 18th November 2013
Publisher: John Wiley and Sons Ltd
Country of Publication: GB
Dimensions (cm): 24.1 x 15.7  x 3.6
Weight (kg): 1.02
Edition Number: 3
Edition Type: Revised