Mid-twentieth century Argentine history was characterized by a long series of political upheavals, economic ups and downs, and social crises. Successive regimes tried to shape a national consciousness to legitimize and support their respective goals. The education system, at all levels, served as a major tool in these efforts. This study focuses on the formal education system in Argentina during the 1940s, the 1950s, and the early 1960s. It analyzes the link between politics and education against the backdrop of changing social conditions in Argentina under the regimes of Peron, Lonardi and Aramburu (the Liberating Revolution), and Frondizi, by evaluating textbooks, official bulletins, children's periodicals, speeches, and personal interviews.