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Political Thought : Oxford Readers - Michael Rosen

Political Thought

Oxford Readers

By: Michael Rosen (Editor), Jonathan Wolff (Editor)

Paperback Published: 1st December 1999
ISBN: 9780192892782
Number Of Pages: 448

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Human beings live together in societies which, by their very nature, give rise to institutions governing the behavior and freedom of individuals. This raises important questions about how these institutions ought to function, and the extent to which actual systems of government succeed or fail in meeting these ideals.
This Oxford Reader contains 140 key writings on political thought, covering issues about human nature and its relation to society, the extent to which the powers of the State are justified, the tension between liberty and rights, and the way resources should be distributed. Topics such as international relations, minority rights, democracy, socialism, and conservatism are also discussed by contributors ranging from Plato and Aristotle to Foucault, Isaiah Berlin, and Martin Luther King.

Preface Introduction Chapter 1: Human Nature Introduction 1a: The Natural State of Mankind 1. Aristotle: The State Exists By Nature 2. Thomas Hobbes: The Misery of the Natural Condition of Mankind 3. John Locke: The State of Nature and the State of War 4. Baron de Montesquieu: Fear and Peace 5. Jean-Jacques Rousseau: The Noble Savage 6. Robert Owen: Man's Character is Formed For Him 7. Karl Marx and FriedrichEngels: Man as a Productive Being 8. Charles Darwin: Natural Selection 9. Charles Darwin: The Advantage of Morality 10. Peter Kropotkin: Mutual Aid 1b: Man's Nature and Woman's Nature 11. Plato: Women as Weaker Partners 12. Aristotle: Separate Spheres 13. Jean-Jacques Rousseau: The Likeness and Unlikeness of the Sexes 14. Mary Wollstonecraft: The Rights of Women 15. John Stuart Mill: The Subjection of Women 16. Carol Gilligan: In a Different Voice 17. Alison M Jaggar: Socialist Feminism and The Standpoint of Women Chapter 2: The Justification of the State 2a What is the State? 18. John Locke: Political Power 19. Max Weber: The State and Coercion 2b The Social Contract 20. Thomas Hobbes: Creating Leviathan 21. John Locke: Express and Tacit Consent 22. Jean-Jacques Rousseau: Natural Freedom and the Freedom of the Citizen 23. Immanuel Kant: The Hypothetical Contract 2cAgainst The Social Contract 24. David Hume: The Irrelevance of Consent 25. Jeremy Bentham: Utility as the True Foundation 26. G.W.F Hegel: The Priority of the State over The Individual 27. H.L.A. Hart: The Principle of Fairness 2d: The Anarchist Response 28. Michael Bakunin: Science and the People 29. Robert Paul Wolff: The Conflict of Autonomy and Authority 2e: Civil Disobedience 30. Plato: The Duty of Obedience 31. Henry David Thoreau: The Duty of Disobedience 32. Martin Luther King: An Unjust Law is No Law 33. John Rawls: Civil Disobedience Chapter 3: Democracy and Its Difficulties 3a: Against Democracy 34. Plato: Ruling as a Skill 35. Frederick the Great: The Enlightened Despot 3b: Democratic Ideals 36. Jean-Jacques Rousseau: The General Will 37. Immanuel Kant: Freedom and Equality 38. John Stuart Mill: The Democratic Citizen 39. John Rawls: Majority Rule 3c True and False Democracy 40. V.I. Lenin: Bourgeois and Proletarian Democracy 41. Carole Pateman: Participatory Democracy 3d Dangers in Democracy 42. Aristotle: Rule of the People and Rule of Law 43. James Madison: The Danger of Faction 44. Alexis de Tocqueville: Tyranny of the Majority 3e Democracy and Bureaucracy 45. Max Weber: Bureaucratic Administration 46. Vilfedo Pareto: Rule By Oligarchy 3f: Separation of Powers 47. John Locke: Legislative, Executive, and Federative Powers 48. Baron de Montesquieu: The Ideal Constitution Chapter 4: Liberty and Rights 4a: What is Liberty? 49. Benjamin Constant: The Liberty of the Ancients and the Liberty of the Moderns 50. Isaiah Berlin: Two Concepts of Liberty 51. Charles Taylor: In Defence of Positive Freedom 52. Ronald Dworkin: No Right to Liberty 4b: Law and Morality 53. John Stuart Mill: One Simple Principle 54. James Fitzjames Stephen: The Consequences of Liberty 55. Partick Devlin: The Enforcement of Morals 56. H.L.A. Hart: The Changing Sense of Morality. 4c: Toleration and Free Expression 57. John Locke: The Futility of Intolerance 58. Thomas Scanlon: Free Expression and the Authority of the State 59. Jeremy Waldron: The Satanic Verses 60. Catherine MacKinnon: Only Words 4d: Virtue and Citizenship 61. Pericles: The Democratic Citizen 62. Aristotle: The Requirements of Citizenship 63. Niccolo Machiavelli: The Servility of the Moderns 64. Alexis de Tocqueville: The Nature of Modern Servitude 65. Quentin Skinner: The Republican Ideal of Political Liberty 4e: Rights 66. Jeremy Bentham: Nonsense on Stilts 67. Karl Marx: The Rights of Egoistic Man 68. Robert Nozick: Rights as Side-Constraints 69. Ronald Dworkin: Taking Rights Seriously 4f: Punishment 70. John Stuart Mill: In Favour of Capital Punishment 71. H.L.A. Hart: Punishment and Responsibility 72. Robert Nozick: Where Deterrence Theory Goes Wrong Chapter 5: Economic Justice 5a: Private Property 73. John Locke: Labour as the Basis of Property 74. Jean-Jacques Rousseau: The Earth Belongs to Nobody 75. G.W.F Hegel: Property as Expression 76. Herbert Spencer: The Right to the Use of the Earth 77. Karl Marx: Money, the Universal Whore 78. Karl Marx: The True Foundation of Private Property 79. Sigmund Freud: Property and Aggression 80. R.H. Tawney: Reaping Without Sowing 81. Robert Nozick: Difficulties With Mixing Labour 5b: The Market 82. Adam Smith: The Dangers of Government Interference 83. Karl Marx: Appearance and Reality 84. F.A. Hayek: Prices as A Code 85. Milton Friedman and Rose Friedman: The Tyranny of Controls 86. G.A. Cohen: Poverty as Lack of Freedom 5c: Theories of Distributive Justice 87. Aesop: The Grasshopper and the Ants 88. Aristotle: Reciprocity 89. Aristotle: Equality and Inequality 90. Gerald Winstanley: The Common Stock 91. David Hume: The Impossibility of Equality 92. Karl Marx: From Each According to His Abilities, To Each According to His Needs 93. Edward Bellamy: Looking Backward 94. F.A. Hayek: The Impossibility of Planning 95. John Rawls: Two Principles of Justice 96. Robert Nozick: The Entitlement Theory 97. Ronald Dworkin: Equality of Resources Chapter 6: Justice Between Groups 6a: Peace and War 98. Immanuel Kant: Perpetual Peace 99. Richard Cobden: The Civilizing Influence of Commerce 100. Michael Walzer: Just and Unjust War 101. Thomas Nagel: The Limits of Warfare 6b: Nationalism 102. Isaiah Berlin: National Sentiment 103. Alasdair MacIntyre: Is Patriotism a Virtue? 6c: Minority Rights 104. Thomas Hill: The Message of Affirmative Action 105. Avishai Margalit and Joseph Raz: National Self-Determination' 6d: Intergenerational Justice 106. Brian Barry: Justice Between Generations' 6e: International Justice 107. Peter Singer: Famine, Affluence and Morality 108. Onora O'Neill: Lifeboat Earth Chapter 7: Alternatives to Liberalism 7a: Liberal Theory Under Strain 109. Jurgen Habermas: Legitimation Crisis 110. Michael Walzer: Liberalism in Retreat 111. Michael Walzer: The Artificiality of Liberalism 7b: Conservatism 112. Edmund Burke: Eternal Society 113. T.S. Eliot: The Transmission of Culture 114. Michael Oakeshott: On Being Conservative 7c: Communitarianism 115. Charles Taylor: Identificiation and Subjectivity 116. Alasdair MacIntyre: Tradition and the Unity of a Life 117. Michael Sandel: Conceptions of Community 7d: Socialism 118. Karl Marx: Work in Communist Society 119. Karl Marx: The Communist Manifesto 120. Karl Marx: The Realm of Freedom 121. Oscar Wilde: The Soul of Man Under Socialism 122. Ernest Mandel: Productive Activity 123. G.A. Cohen: Socialism and Equality of Opportunity 7e: Post-Modernism 124. Friedrich Nietzsche:The Impulse Towards Justice 125. Michel Foucault: Power/Knowledge 126. Richard Rorty: The Priority of Democracy to Philosophy Chapter 8: Progess and Civilization 127. Jean-Jacques Rousseau: The Efffect of the Arts and Sciences 128. Adam Smith: Division of Labour 129. Friedrich Schiller: Fragmentation and Aesthetic Education 130. Karl Marx: Development of the Productive Forces 131. Fyodor Dostoyevsky: Our Self-Destructive Impulse 132. Friedrich Engels: Transition to Communism 133. Max Weber: Disenchantment 134. Karl Popper: The Utopian Method 135. Francis Fukuyama: The End of History Appendix: Fundamental Political Documents 136. U.S. Declaration of Independence 1776 137. Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen 1789 138. The Bill of Rights 1789 139. The Gettysburg Address 1863 140. United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1948

ISBN: 9780192892782
ISBN-10: 0192892789
Series: Oxford Readers
Audience: Professional
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 448
Published: 1st December 1999
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Country of Publication: GB
Dimensions (cm): 23.5 x 16.0  x 2.6
Weight (kg): 0.68