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Political Institutions under Dictatorship - Jennifer Gandhi

Political Institutions under Dictatorship

Paperback Published: 26th July 2010
ISBN: 9780521155717
Number Of Pages: 258

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Often dismissed as window-dressing, nominally democratic institutions, such as legislatures and political parties, play an important role in non-democratic regimes. In a comprehensive cross-national study of all non-democratic states from 1946 to 2002 that examines the political uses of these institutions by dictators, Gandhi finds that legislative and partisan institutions are an important component in the operation and survival of authoritarian regimes. She examines how and why these institutions are useful to dictatorships in maintaining power, analyzing the way dictators utilize institutions as a forum in which to organize political concessions to potential opposition in an effort to neutralize threats to their power and to solicit cooperation from groups outside of the ruling elite. The use of legislatures and parties to co-opt opposition results in significant institutional effects on policies and outcomes under dictatorship.

"This book represents a major contribution to the resurgent study of non-democratic regimes. It is one of the first substantial pieces of modern social scientific analysis of the phenomenon, skillfully combining formal and quantitative cross-national analysis with country case studies. It will have a major impact in the study of modern authoritarian regimes." -Miriam A. Golden, Professor of Political Science, University of California at Los Angeles
"Jennifer Gandhi's book is not just a study of dictatorship, but an important contribution to comparative politics in general. While its topic is political institutions under dictatorship, its definition of dictatorship is the residual of a prominent and widely used definition and measure of democracy, so it builds a bridge between studies of democracy and of dictatorship. Her three kinds of dictatorship and two kinds of institutions produce a rich and informative empirical analysis in which she explains variation in the longevity, policy and performance of non-democratic governments." -William R Keech, Professor Emeritus of Political Economy, Carnegie Mellon University
"Jennifer Gandhi has written a dazzling book. With incisive theorizing, a remarkable combination of formal theory and statistical analysis, and rich case studies, Gandhi has produced one of the first systematic comparative treatments of autocracy. Two of her main conclusions are that political institutions such as legislatures and political parties enable political bargains between dictators and their potential opponents, and that these institutions have major impacts on a wide range of outcomes, including economic performance. A must-read for anyone interested in comparative politics, political regimes and the political economy of development." -Beatriz Magaloni-Kerpel, Stanford University
"In Political Institutions under Dictatorship, Jennifer Gandhi provides important insights into the role that political parties and legislatures play in dictatorships. She disputes characterizations of these institutions as simple `window dressing,' finding instead that political parties and legislatures can play an important role in policy formation, implementation and regime survival. The reason, she argues, is that these institutions provide an arena within which incumbents and potential opponents can forge policy compromises. Her analysis of these effects through an impressive database of dictatorships in the post-war era is clear and refreshingly frank. Political Institutions under Dictatorship is a must-read for scholars interested in authoritarian politics." -Ellen Lust-Okar, Associate Professor of Political Science, Yale University
"Gandhi breaks new ground in this theoretically and empirically rich book on authoritarian regimes that have adopted legislative institutions. These regimes are likely to spend somewhat less on the military, have a better human rights record, and provide more benefits to workers than their autocratic counterparts. While all of this sounds positive, Gandhi warns--contrary to the linear model of progressive democratization posited in modernization theory--that partial reforms may in fact allow authoritarian governments to prolong their rule by coopting the opposition." -Frances Rosenbluth, Yale University
"Jennifer Gandhi's book is a welcome addition to this literature." Perspectives on Politics, Susan Rose-Ackerman, Yale University
"As the title suggests, Jennifer Gandhi's Political Institutions under Dictatorship argues that democratic-looking institutions, particularly legislatures, are not merely "window-dressing" but essential weapons in a dictator's arsenal... Political Institutions under Dictatorship offers a somewhat different perspective on institutions, one that draws more from a rational choice as opposed to a historical-institutionalism perspective... This account of origins is clearly inspired by rational choice and functionalism, and Gandhi uses evidence from the case studies of Kuwait, Ecuador, and Morocco in her second chapter to illustrate that her deductions are empirically supportable." -David Art, Comparative Politics

List of Tables and Figuresp. xi
Acknowledgmentsp. xiii
Introductionp. xv
The Argumentp. xvii
The Study of Institutions in Dictatorshipsp. xix
Plan of the Bookp. xxi
The World of Dictatorial Institutionsp. 1
Introductionp. 1
What Is Dictatorship?p. 2
Historical Usagep. 3
Contemporary Controversiesp. 7
Who Are the Dictators?p. 12
Monarchsp. 21
Military Dictatorsp. 25
Civilian Dictatorsp. 29
Operationalization of Dictatorial Typesp. 31
Nominally Democratic Institutionsp. 34
Legislaturesp. 34
Political Partiesp. 36
Conclusionp. 39
Three Illustrative Casesp. 42
Introductionp. 42
Kuwait: Strength without Institutionsp. 44
Sabah Consolidation of Powerp. 44
Merchants and the Push for Institutionsp. 46
The Majlis Movement and the Regime's Responsep. 49
Morocco: Survival with Institutionsp. 52
The Rise of Monarchical and Nationalist Forcesp. 52
Managing State-Building and Oppositionp. 55
The Battle over Institutionsp. 58
Ecuador: The Perils of Noninstitutionalizationp. 61
Prelude to Military Rulep. 61
The Military's Agendap. 64
The Rise of Oppositionp. 66
Underinstitutionalization and Its Consequencesp. 68
Conclusionp. 71
Use of Institutions to Co-optp. 73
Introductionp. 73
Dictatorial Concessionsp. 74
Dictatorial Institutionsp. 77
Actors and Preferencesp. 82
Timingp. 86
Results: Three Equilibriap. 87
Cooperation Equilibriump. 87
Co-optation Equilibriump. 88
Turmoil Equilibriump. 90
Predicting Dictatorial Institutionsp. 92
Datap. 92
Conclusionp. 100
Appendixp. 101
Solutionsp. 101
Comparative Staticsp. 105
Institutions and Policies under Dictatorshipp. 107
Introductionp. 107
Which Policies?p. 110
Civil Libertiesp. 116
Datap. 117
Effect of Institutionsp. 122
Military Expendituresp. 126
Datap. 127
Social Spendingp. 132
Datap. 133
Effect of Institutionsp. 135
Conclusionp. 137
Institutions and Outcomes under Dictatorshipp. 139
Introductionp. 139
Institutional Mechanisms for Economic Developmentp. 142
Alternative Theoretical Frameworksp. 146
Mobilization Power of Single-Party Regimesp. 147
State Autonomyp. 148
Importance of Noninstitutionalized Factorsp. 149
Institutions and Economic Growthp. 150
Model Specificationp. 151
Datap. 152
Effect of Institutions: Results from Random Effects Modelsp. 154
Effect of Institutions: Results from Heckman Selection Modelp. 157
Conclusionp. 160
Institutions and the Survival of Dictatorsp. 163
Introductionp. 163
Managing Political Survivalp. 165
Impact of Institutions on Survivalp. 169
Event History Analysisp. 169
Datap. 171
Impact of Institutions on Survivalp. 175
Conclusionp. 177
Conclusionp. 180
Codebook of Variablesp. 189
Bibliographyp. 195
Author Indexp. 215
Subject Indexp. 221
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780521155717
ISBN-10: 0521155711
Audience: Professional
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 258
Published: 26th July 2010
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Country of Publication: GB
Dimensions (cm): 22.8 x 15.2  x 1.5
Weight (kg): 0.39