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Policy Instruments for Environmental and Natural Resource Management : RFF Press - Professor Thomas Sterner

Policy Instruments for Environmental and Natural Resource Management

RFF Press

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Published: 1st November 2002
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As Thomas Sterner points out, the economic 'toolkit' for dealing with environmental problems has become formidable. It includes taxes, charges, permits, deposit-refund systems, labeling, and other information disclosure mechanisms. Though not all these devices are widely used, empirical application has started within some sectors, and we are beginning to see the first systematic efforts at an advanced policy design that takes due account of market-based incentives. Sterneri? s book encourages more widespread and careful use of economic policy instruments. Intended primarily for application in developing and transitional countries, the book compares the accumulated experiences of the use of economic policy instruments in the U.S. and Europe, as well as in select rich and poor countries in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Ambitious in scope, the book discusses the design of instruments that can be employed in a wide range of contexts, including transportation, industrial pollution, water pricing, waste, fisheries, forests, and agriculture. Policy Instruments for Environmental and Natural Resource Management is deeply rooted in economics but also informed by perspectives drawn from political, legal, ecological, and psychological research. Sterner notes that, in addition to meeting requirements for efficiency, the selection and design of policy instruments must satisfy criteria involving equity and political acceptability. He is careful to distinguish between the well-designed plans of policymakers and the resulting behavior of society. A copublication of Resources for the Future, the World Bank, and the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida).

'This is a valuable guide to the problems of implementing environmental policy.' Regulation

'This book not only details the economic principles behind environmental policy, but also presents a wide range of examples of practical policy design in areas such as road transportation, industrial pollution, and the management of natural resources and ecosystems. ...Put simply, a good source of inspiration.' Journal of Forest Economics

'Thomas Sterner digs deep into the foundations of the subject and probes widely into practical matters of environmental policy. This book will be the starting point of rigorous environmental discourse for a long time to come.' Sir Partha Dasgupta, University of Cambridge

Forewordp. xiii
Prefacep. xv
Acknowledgementsp. xvii
Abbreviationsp. xxi
Background and Overviewp. 1
Definitions, Concepts, and Challenges for Policymakingp. 1
Overview of the Bookp. 7
The Need for Environmental and Natural Resource Policy
Consequences of Economic Growthp. 11
Institutional and Policy Failurep. 13
Classical Causes of Environmental Degradationp. 15
Growth and the Environmentp. 15
Welfare and Policy Reformp. 18
Market Failurep. 21
Externalitiesp. 23
Public Economics and Informationp. 27
Public Goods, Club Goods, and Common Propertyp. 27
Congestionp. 30
Asymmetric Information and Uncertaintyp. 31
Adapting Models to Ecosystems: Ecology, Time, and Spacep. 36
A Simple Bioeconomic Model of a Fisheryp. 36
Bioeconomics and the Management of Ecosystemsp. 40
Management in an Intertemporal Settingp. 45
Spatial Heterogeneity and Land Usep. 49
The Evolution of Rightsp. 53
Real Propertyp. 55
Common Property Resourcesp. 58
Water Lawp. 59
Lessons for Environmental Externalities and Commonsp. 61
Review of Policy Instruments
Direct Regulation of the Environmentp. 71
Optimality and Policy Instrumentsp. 71
Direct Provision of Public Goodsp. 74
Regulation of Technologyp. 75
Regulation of Performancep. 79
Tradable Permitsp. 82
U.S. Emissions Trading Programsp. 85
Other Emissions Trading Programsp. 91
Trading Programs for Other Resourcesp. 92
Taxesp. 94
Pigovian Taxesp. 94
Taxes, Charges, and Earmarkingp. 97
Taxes on Inputs and Outputsp. 99
Taxing Natural Resourcesp. 101
Subsidies, Deposit-Refund Schemes, and Refunded Emissions Paymentsp. 102
Subsidies and Subsidy Removalp. 102
Deposit-Refund, Tax-Subsidy, and Other Two-Part Tariff Systemsp. 104
Refunded Emissions Paymentsp. 106
Property Rights, Legal Instruments, and Informational Policiesp. 109
Creation of Property Rightsp. 109
Common Property Resource Managementp. 111
Liability and Other Legal Instrumentsp. 115
Environmental Agreementsp. 119
Provision of Informationp. 122
National Policy and Planningp. 128
Selection of Policy Instruments
Efficiency of Policy Instrumentsp. 136
Heterogeneous Abatement Costsp. 136
Heterogeneous Damage Costsp. 141
Efficiency in an Intertemporal Sensep. 145
Technological Progress, Growth, and Inflationp. 146
Role of Uncertainty and Information Asymmetryp. 150
Uncertainty in Abatement and Damage Costs (Price vs. Quantity)p. 150
Uncertainty Concerning Type of Polluter or Userp. 154
Uncertainty Concerning Polluter or User Behaviorp. 157
Equilibrium Effects and Market Conditionsp. 167
Goal Fulfillment, Abatement, and Output Substitutionp. 167
General Equilibrium, Taxation, and the Double Dividendp. 171
Adapting to Market Conditionsp. 175
Distribution of Costsp. 180
Distribution of Costs and Rights between Polluters and Societyp. 181
Allocation of Rightsp. 184
Incidence of Costs between Pollutersp. 186
Income Distributional Effects and Povertyp. 189
Politics and Psychology of Policy Instrumentsp. 193
Politics of Policy Instrument Selectionp. 194
Enforcement, Monitoring, and the Psychology of Instrument Choicep. 197
Policymaking in Severely Resource-Constrained Economiesp. 199
International Aspectsp. 203
International Environmental Issuesp. 203
Trade, International Relations, and Local Policymakingp. 206
Competitiveness and the Porter Hypothesisp. 210
Design of Policy Instrumentsp. 212
Environmental Policy Selection Matrixp. 212
Interaction between Policiesp. 217
Policy Instruments for Road Transportation
Environmental Damage Caused by Transportationp. 222
Vehiclesp. 222
Locationp. 223
Combining Vehicle Age and Locationp. 224
Engine Temperature and Other Factorsp. 225
Environmental Road Pricingp. 228
Calculating Environmental Damage from Road Transportationp. 228
Simpler Pricing Schemesp. 230
Taxation or Regulation for Fuel Efficiencyp. 239
Fuel Taxationp. 239
Regulations Instead of Price Mechanismsp. 248
Fuel Quality, Vehicle Standards, and Urban Planningp. 252
Fuel Quality and the Phaseout of Leadp. 252
Policies for Fuel Quality in Sweden and Other Countriesp. 259
Vehicle Standards, Efficiency, and Distributional Concernsp. 261
Urban Pollution in Developing-World Citiesp. 267
Lessons Learned: Transportationp. 273
Policy Instruments for Industrial Pollution
Experience in Developed Countriesp. 278
Abating Sulfur Emissionsp. 279
Reducing NO[subscript x] Emissions from Combustionp. 285
Green Tax Reform in Sweden and Germanyp. 290
Prohibition Compared with Other Policies: Trichloroethylenep. 294
Liability and Superfundp. 300
Information Provision and VAs on U.S. Toxic Emissionsp. 302
Global Policymaking: Protecting the Ozone Layerp. 304
Global Climate Change: Domestic Policies and New Technologyp. 305
Experience in Developing Countriesp. 316
Environmental Funds and Other Instruments: CEE Countriesp. 317
Environmental Fees and Funds: Chinap. 320
Environmental Charges: Rio Negro, Colombiap. 323
Voluntary Participation in Emissions Control: Mexicop. 325
Differentiated Electricity Tariffs: Mexico and Zambiap. 327
Information Provision and Institutional Capacity: Indonesiap. 331
Two-Tier Pollution Regulation: Indiap. 336
Lessons Learnedp. 342
Policy Instruments for the Management of Natural Resources and Ecosystems
Waterp. 346
Water Management and Tarifficationp. 348
Tariff Structures in Some Middle Eastern Economiesp. 350
Water Tariffs in Chilep. 350
Water Management, Laws, and Pricing in Southern Africap. 352
Pricing Water When Metering Is Not Possiblep. 354
CPR Management of Waterp. 359
Wastep. 362
Economic Incentives in Waste Managementp. 363
Waste Management in Developing Countriesp. 365
Tourism and Waste Management in the Caribbeanp. 366
Eco-Labeling of Soaps and Detergentsp. 369
Tradable Packaging Waste Recovery Notesp. 371
Fisheriesp. 373
Management of Small-Scale Subsistence Fisheriesp. 377
ITQs in Fishery Managementp. 381
Conclusionsp. 387
Agriculturep. 390
Managing Agricultural Runoffp. 392
Property Rights, Population Growth, and Soil Erosionp. 394
Risk in Sharecropper Agriculturep. 396
Eco-Taxes in Agroindustryp. 400
Forestryp. 406
Subsidiesp. 408
Taxesp. 409
Regulationsp. 410
Forest Concessions and Timber Contractsp. 410
Certificationp. 411
Carbon Offsets and Other Forms of International Paymentp. 412
Clarification of Property Rightsp. 413
Ecosystemsp. 416
CPR Management of Wildlife in Zimbabwep. 417
Protection of Marine Ecosystemsp. 420
Shaping Ecosystem Policyp. 427
Conclusion
Policy Issues and Potential Solutionsp. 432
Policymaking Criteriap. 433
Efficiencyp. 434
Uncertainty, Risk, and Information Asymmetryp. 436
Ecological and Technical Complexitiesp. 438
The Provision of Environmental Public Goodsp. 439
Feasibility, Market Structure, and General Equilibrium Effectsp. 441
Cost Distribution and the Politics of Policymakingp. 443
National and International Policymakingp. 444
Conclusionp. 445
Referencesp. 449
Indexp. 483
About the Authorp. 504
Table of Contents provided by Rittenhouse. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9781891853128
ISBN-10: 1891853120
Series: RFF Press
Audience: Professional
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 530
Published: 1st November 2002
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 23.37 x 15.85  x 2.39
Weight (kg): 0.73
Edition Number: 1