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Plant Microbiology - Michael Gillings

Plant Microbiology

By: Michael Gillings (Editor), Andrew Holmes (Editor)

Hardcover Published: 6th May 2004
ISBN: 9781859962244
Number Of Pages: 400

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This title, written by experts in the field, provides a comprehensive source of information on DNA sequencing and mapping, the newest technologiy and procedures in areas such as radiation hybrid mapping, FISH and specialized sequencing techniques are covered. The book also describes how transgene expression is controlled in plants and how advanced information strategies can be used to manipulate and modify the plant genome. An exciting final chapter provides and overview of all the applications of plant transformation in agriculture, medicine and industry.

Abbreviationsp. ix
Contributorsp. xi
Prefacep. xiii
The diversity, ecology and molecular detection of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungip. 1
Introductionp. 1
The taxonomy of AM fungip. 2
Molecular techniques used to study AM fungi in the fieldp. 5
Community detectionp. 6
Specific detectionp. 8
The molecular diversity of AM fungi colonising roots in the fieldp. 8
Conclusionsp. 14
Rhizobial signals convert pathogens to symbionts at the legume interfacep. 19
Introductionp. 19
Plant responses to nod-factors: perception and signal transductionp. 20
Plant defence responses during the establishment of symbiosisp. 23
Factors excreted by rhizobia interfere with host defence responsesp. 24
Rhizobial type three secretion systems as new elements in symbiosis establishmentp. 25
Conclusions and perspectivesp. 28
The root nodule bacteria of legumes in natural systemsp. 33
Introductionp. 33
The root nodule bacteria--legume symbiosisp. 34
Symbiotic association between native legumes and root nodule bacteriap. 35
Host range of isolates from native legumesp. 35
The effectiveness of nitrogen fixation in native legume symbiotic associationsp. 38
A survival strategy?p. 40
Diversity of organisms that nodulate native legumesp. 40
Phenotypic classificationp. 41
Phylogenetic characterisationp. 42
Influences on root nodule bacteria populations and diversityp. 47
Soil characteristicsp. 47
Legume hostp. 49
Conclusionp. 50
Effects of transgenic plants on soil micro-organisms and nutrient dynamicsp. 55
Introductionp. 55
Rhizosphere communities of plants producing antimicrobial agentsp. 56
Herbicide-tolerant plants and their associated microflorap. 59
Horizontal transfer of transgenic plant DNA to bacteriap. 62
Persistence of free DNA in soilp. 62
Transfer of marker genes from transgenic plants to soil or rhizosphere bacteriap. 63
Impact of genetically modified plants on element dynamicsp. 66
Fungal endophytes: hitch-hikers of the green worldp. 77
Introductionp. 77
Endophyte--constructing or misleading concept?p. 78
Life history traits of endophytic fungi and host plantsp. 79
Reproduction and transmission mode of fungip. 79
Partner fidelity and evolution of virulencep. 81
Asexual fungi--evolutionary dead ends?p. 82
Ecological consequences of endophyte infectionsp. 83
Resource allocation among competing plant and fungal functionsp. 83
Defensive mutualism or plant resistance to folivorous organismsp. 85
Endophytes--rare plant mutualists?p. 87
Applicationsp. 88
Actinorhizal symbioses: diversity and biogeographyp. 97
Introductionp. 97
Practical aspects of studying Frankia strain diversityp. 98
Taxonomy and phylogeny of actinorhizal plants and Frankiap. 99
Actinorhizal plant phylogenyp. 99
Phylogeny of Frankiap. 103
Biogeographic distribution of actinorhizal plants and Frankia strainsp. 105
The Betulaceaep. 105
The Myricaceaep. 108
The Casuarinaceaep. 110
The Elaeagnaceaep. 112
The Rhamnaceaep. 114
The Coriariaceaep. 117
The Datiscaceaep. 118
The Rosaceaep. 119
Summaryp. 120
Chemical signalling by bacterial plant pathogensp. 129
Introductionp. 129
Acyl hsl-based regulation of virulence factorsp. 130
Vibrio fischeri lux system--archetypal quorum-sensing regulationp. 130
The LuxR family of transcriptional regulatorsp. 132
The LuxI family of acyl HSL synthasesp. 133
Regulation of exoenzyme production in Erwinia spp.p. 133
Regulation of antibiotic synthesis in Erwinia spp.p. 135
Quorum sensing in Pantoea stewartiip. 136
Quorum sensing in Agrobacterium tumefaciens--the regulation of Ti plasmidp. 137
Quorum sensing in phytopathogenic Pseudomonas spp.p. 139
Non-acyl hsl systemsp. 140
Quorum sensing in Ralstonia solanacearump. 140
Quorum sensing in Xanthomonas campestrisp. 142
Quorum sensing and nodulation in Rhizobium spp.p. 144
Concluding remarksp. 144
Further possibilities for quorum sensing in phytopathogensp. 144
Why study phytopathogenic bacterial signalling?p. 145
Quorum quenching--manipulating quorum sensing for disease controlp. 153
Introductionp. 153
The enzymes inactivating AHL signalsp. 155
The chemicals accelerating LuxR-type protein turn overp. 157
Quorum quenching substances in terrestrial plantsp. 158
Overproduction of AHL signals in transgenic plantsp. 158
Conclusions and future prospectsp. 159
Plant disease and climate changep. 163
Introductionp. 163
Climate changep. 164
Change in atmospheric compositionp. 164
Change in temperature and rainfallp. 165
Change in extremes of weatherp. 165
Crop plants and climate changep. 166
Rising CO[subscript 2] is not the only driver of yieldp. 166
Regional variation in yieldp. 166
Plant disease and climate changep. 167
Historical links between severe epidemics and climatep. 167
Plant disease under changing atmospheric CO[subscript 2]p. 168
Plant disease in a changing climatep. 171
Disease management in a changing climatep. 173
Looking aheadp. 173
Genetic diversity of bacterial plant pathogensp. 181
Introductionp. 181
Phylogenetic diversity of plant-pathogenic bacteriap. 182
Genomic diversity of plant-pathogenic bacteriap. 184
Infrasubspecific genetic diversity of plant-pathogenic bacteriap. 186
Methods commonly employed for the assessment of diversity of plant pathogenic bacteriap. 187
Assessment of genetic diversity for clarifying infraspecific taxonomic relationships; the case study of P. syringaep. 190
Genetic diversity and development of molecular diagnosticsp. 193
Pathogen populations: deployment of resistancep. 193
The use of genetic fingerprinting in epidemiologyp. 195
The nature of genetic diversityp. 195
Conclusionsp. 196
Genetic diversity and population structure of plant-pathogenic species in the genus Fusariump. 205
Introductionp. 205
Taxonomic history and species concepts in Fusariump. 206
Why is the species definition important to studies of genetic diversity?p. 207
Morphological species conceptsp. 207
Biological species conceptsp. 207
Phylogenetic species conceptsp. 208
The reality of current Fusarium taxonomyp. 209
Fusarium oxysporump. 209
Fusarium graminearump. 211
Gibberella fujikuroi species complexp. 213
The future of population genetic studies in Fusariump. 215
Genome sequence analysis of prokaryotic plant pathogensp. 223
Introductionp. 223
Backgroundp. 223
Pathogen background and disease mechanismp. 226
Agrobacterium tumefaciensp. 226
Ralstonia solanacearump. 226
Xanthomonasp. 227
Xylella fastidiosap. 228
Genome sequence analyses of phytopathogenic bacteriap. 228
Featuresp. 228
Anomalous regionsp. 232
Systemsp. 233
Comparisonsp. 235
Conclusionsp. 239
Analysis of microbial communities in the plant environmentp. 243
Introductionp. 243
The challengesp. 244
Representationp. 244
Speedp. 245
Resolutionp. 246
Defining microbiological unitsp. 246
Characterising micro-organismsp. 246
Molecular surrogates for characterising bacteriap. 248
Which macromolecules?p. 248
Measuring community richnessp. 249
Macromolecule sequencesp. 249
Other macromolecule-based OTUsp. 251
Comparison after prefractionationp. 255
Microarrays--the final solution?p. 256
Patterns of microbial diversity in soilp. 258
Concluding remarksp. 259
The importance of microbial culture collections to plant microbiologyp. 269
Introductionp. 269
Why microbial culture collections?p. 269
Why deposit cultures?p. 271
Culture collections for patent depositsp. 272
Culture collections, biotechnology and biodiversityp. 272
Culture collections vs in-situ conservationp. 273
The economic value of microbial culture collectionsp. 275
Importance of collections to taxonomy and biosystematicsp. 275
Will molecular biology replace the need for culture collections?p. 276
Culture collections as archivesp. 278
Culture collections, quarantine and tradep. 279
Conclusionp. 280
Indexp. 285
Table of Contents provided by Rittenhouse. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9781859962244
ISBN-10: 1859962246
Audience: Tertiary; University or College
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 400
Published: 6th May 2004
Publisher: Taylor and Francis Ltd (Production)
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 24.03 x 16.26  x 2.24
Weight (kg): 0.59
Edition Number: 1