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Plant Cell Death Processes - Larry D. Nooden

Plant Cell Death Processes

Hardcover Published: 1st October 2003
ISBN: 9780125209151
Number Of Pages: 392

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Programmed cell death is a common pattern of growth and development in both animals and plants. However, programmed cell death and related processes are not as generally recognized as central to plant growth. This is changing fast and is becoming more of a focus of intensive research. This edited work will bring under one cover recent reviews of programmed cell death, apoptosis and senescence.
Summaries of the myriad aspects of cell death in plants
Discussion of the broadest implications of these disparite results
A unification of fields where there has been no cross talk
Enables easy entry into diverse but related lines of research

Throughout 26 chapters Plant Cell Death Processes discusses all essential topics of plant senescence from molecular approaches to ecological and evolutionary considerations. An introductory chapter together with comparative cell death and integrative whole plant senescence chapters provide updated perspectives which will be appreciated by both specialized and general interest readers. Going into basic mechanisms, chapters provide a full account of the different senescence-related processes with special emphasis on recent molecular and genetic approaches connecting pioneering senescence investigations, programmed cell death (PCD) in plants and animals and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Far from a descriptive approach, introductory and ecological chapters provide excellent complements to the integrative explanations in the chapters devoted to specific processes or organs. Triggering factors, cause-effect sequences of processes an the ecological-evolutionary fitness meaning of senescence are the key questions in the field. They are competently treated through specific perspectives in the different chapters, avoiding simplifications and showing their complexity and molecular relations with other processes previously considered outside of the senescence field. In my opinion, Plant Cell Death Processes will be an obligate reference book for those investigating in plant senescence and in several fields sharing molecular processes with senescence. -Prof. Bartolome Sabater, Universidad de Alcala, Madrid, Spain

Contributorsp. xvii
Foreword--Aging and Deathp. xxi
Prefacep. xxv
Introductionp. 1
What this Book Coversp. 1
The Processes--Senescence, Aging, Programmed Cell Death, Apoptosis, etc.--Evolving Conceptsp. 2
Apoptosis in Animalsp. 6
Apoptosis in Plantsp. 8
The Senescence Syndromep. 10
Hormonal Controlsp. 13
Evolutionp. 14
Referencesp. 14
Plant Cell Death and Cell Differentiationp. 19
Introductionp. 19
The Scope of PCD in Plantsp. 20
Prereproductive Cell Deathp. 22
Aleurone and Scutellump. 22
Xylemp. 24
Aerenchymap. 25
Abscission Zonesp. 26
Reproductive Cell Deathp. 27
Floral Organsp. 27
Gametophytesp. 29
Pollinationp. 29
Embryogenesisp. 30
Conclusionsp. 31
Referencesp. 31
Cell Death in Plant Disease: Mechanisms and Molecular Markersp. 37
Introductionp. 37
Role of Cell Death during Plant-Pathogen Interactionsp. 38
Structural and Biochemical Changes Accompanying Cell Death during Plant Diseasep. 38
Definition of Steps Involved in the Signaling Process of Cell Death Induction during Plant-Pathogen Interactionsp. 39
Molecular Components for Cell Death Control during Plant-Pathogen Interactionsp. 41
Glogal Analyses of Markers for Cell Death Induction by Plant Pathogensp. 43
Isolation and Characterization of HR Markersp. 43
Comparative Analyses of Cell Death Pathways Induced by Avirulent Pathogens and Senescencep. 44
Future Approaches to Global Analysis of Cell Death-related Genes: Genomic-scale Gene Expression Monitoring to Mapping of Intersecting Signaling Pathwaysp. 45
Referencesp. 47
Changes in Gene Expression during Senescencep. 51
Introductionp. 51
Changes in Patterns of Nucleic Acids and Proteins during Senescencep. 52
Similarities between Senescing and Ripening Tissuesp. 52
Identification and Classification of Senescence-related Genesp. 52
Senescence-related Genesp. 53
Regulation of SR Gene Expression by Stressesp. 60
Regulation of SR Gene Expression by Cytokininsp. 60
Regulation of SR Gene Expression by Ethylenep. 61
Function of SR Genes in Senescencep. 62
Genes Involved in Protein Degradationp. 62
Genes Involved in the Breakdown of Nucleic Acidsp. 63
Genes Involved in Membrane Disassemblyp. 64
Genes Involved in Remobilization of Nitrogenp. 64
Genes Encoding Protective or Defense-Response Proteinsp. 65
Genes Involved in Ethylene Biosynthesis and Perceptionp. 66
Summaryp. 66
Referencesp. 67
Genes that Alter Senescencep. 73
Introductionp. 73
Senescence as a Genetically Programmed Processp. 74
Genes Involved in Execution of Senescencep. 76
Overviewp. 76
Chlorophyll Breakdownp. 77
Membrane and Lipid Breakdownp. 78
Other Genes Involved in Macromolecule Degradationp. 78
Genes Affecting Senescence through Action on the Hormonal Controlsp. 79
Overviewp. 79
Delay of Senescence by Cytokininp. 79
Regulation of Senescence by Ethylenep. 80
Change of Senescence by Brassinosteroid Biosynthesisp. 80
Genes that Alter Senescence in Response to Environmental Factorsp. 80
Genes in Light Signalingp. 80
Stress-related Genesp. 81
Genes Controlling Vegetative Growth (Regeneration) and Monocarpic Senescencep. 81
Regulatory Genes and Intracellular Signalingp. 82
Conclusionsp. 85
Referencesp. 87
Senescence and Genetic Engineeringp. 91
Introductionp. 91
The Relationship of Cytokinins and Senescencep. 92
Manipulation of Cytokinin Levelsp. 92
Cytokinin Signaling and Mechanism of Actionp. 95
The Relationship of Ethylene and Senescencep. 97
Concluding Remarksp. 100
Referencesp. 101
Proteolysisp. 107
Introductionp. 107
Selective Hydrolysis of Peptide Bondsp. 108
Protein Maturation and Removal of Peptides from Larger Precursorsp. 108
Degradation of Damaged Proteins and of Unassembled Subunitsp. 108
Protein Turnover and Adaptation of the Metabolism to Changing Conditionsp. 108
Degradation of Mature Proteins in Relation to Nitrogen Remobilizationp. 108
Proteolytic Activities in Plantsp. 109
Classification of Peptide Hydrolasesp. 109
Complex Proteolytic Systemsp. 110
ATP-Dependency of Proteolysisp. 113
Compartmentationp. 113
Proteolysis in Relation to Cell Deathp. 114
Cell Death during Differentiationp. 114
Senescencep. 115
Hypersensitive Responsep. 116
Regulation of Protein Catabolismp. 116
Changes in the Pattern of Proteolytic Enzymesp. 116
Altered Susceptibility of Substrate Proteinsp. 116
Aspects of Compartmentationp. 118
Influence of Solutesp. 118
Conclusionsp. 119
Referencesp. 120
Ethylene Signaling in Plant Cell Deathp. 125
Introductionp. 125
Ethylene Biosynthesis Pathwaysp. 126
ACC Pathwayp. 126
Non-ACC Pathwayp. 126
Temporal and Spatial Regulation of Ethylene Biosynthesisp. 127
Ethylene Signal Transduction Pathwayp. 127
Ethylene Cross Talk with Other Plant Hormonesp. 129
Ethylene, Abscisic Acid and Sugarp. 131
Ethylene and Auxinp. 132
Ethylene and Cytokininsp. 132
Ethylene and Polyaminesp. 133
Protease Involvement and Ethylene Biosynthesis in PCDp. 134
Hormonal Regulation of Plant PCDp. 134
Perspectivep. 136
Referencesp. 137
Jasmonates--Biosynthesis and Role in Stress Responses and Developmental Processesp. 143
Introductionp. 143
Jasmonates and Related Compoundsp. 143
LOX-derived Compounds and the Biosynthesis of Octadecanoids and Jasmonatesp. 144
The LOX Pathwayp. 144
Octadecanoid and Jasmonate Biosynthesisp. 145
Signaling Properties of Jasmonates and Octadecanoids--the Oxylipin Signaturep. 146
Jasmonate-induced Alteration of Gene Expressionp. 147
Jasmonates and Plant Defense Reactionsp. 147
Jasmonates in Plant Development and Senescencep. 150
Referencesp. 152
Leaf Senescence and Nitrogen Metabolismp. 157
Introductionp. 157
Leaf Senescence and Nitrogen Lossp. 157
Fate of Chloroplasts and their Constituentsp. 158
Protein Metabolism during Leaf Senescencep. 158
Fates of DNA and RNAp. 158
Synthesis and Degradation of Rubiscop. 159
Molecular Basis for Changes in Rubisco Synthesis during Senescencep. 160
Light-Harvesting Chlorophyll a/b Binding Protein of PSIIp. 161
D1 proteinp. 162
Protein degradationp. 163
Remobilization of Nitrogen in Senescing Leavesp. 163
Amide Formation in Senescing Leavesp. 163
Conclusionp. 164
Referencesp. 165
Photosynthesis and Chloroplast Breakdownp. 169
Introductionp. 169
Decline of Photosynthetic Functionp. 170
Decrease in the Number of Chloroplasts or Gradual Degradation of Persisting Chloroplasts?p. 170
Photosynthetic Performancep. 170
Risk of Photoinhibitionp. 171
Chloroplast Breakdownp. 172
Sequence of Senescence-associated Eventsp. 172
Degradation of Plastid Constituentsp. 172
Expression of Nuclear Genes Encoding Photosynthesis-related Proteinsp. 175
Calvin Cycle-related Genesp. 175
Genes Encoding Thylakoid Membrane Proteinsp. 175
Regulatory Mechanisms Underlying the Down-regulation of Photosynthesis-related Nuclear Genesp. 176
Plastid Gene Expression during Senescencep. 176
Transcriptional Activityp. 176
Transcript Levelsp. 178
Protein Synthesisp. 178
Expression of Plastid Genes not Related to Photosynthesisp. 179
Regulation of Chloroplast Senescencep. 180
The Dilemma of the Chloroplast: Ongoing Photosynthesis during Senescence-associated Breakdownp. 180
Coordination of Senescence-related Degradation of Proteinsp. 180
Photosynthesis and Senescence in Stay-Green Mutants and Transgenic Plantsp. 181
Photosynthesis and Senescence at Elevated CO[subscript 2] Concentrationsp. 182
Conclusionsp. 183
Referencesp. 183
How Leaves Turn Yellow: Catabolism of Chlorophyllp. 189
Introductionp. 189
Porphyrin Macrocycle Cleavagep. 190
Chlorophyll Catabolic Pathwayp. 192
Intracellular Organizationp. 194
Regulation of Chlorophyll Breakdownp. 196
Significance of Chlorophyll Breakdownp. 197
Chlorophyll Bleachingp. 198
Prospectp. 199
Referencesp. 199
Free Radicals and Oxidative Stressp. 203
Introductionp. 203
The Molecules that Cause Oxidative Stressp. 203
Generating Active Oxygen Speciesp. 204
Metabolic Byproductsp. 204
Abiotic Stressesp. 205
Oxidative Burstp. 206
Photosensitizing Compoundsp. 206
Defending Against Oxidative Stressp. 207
Cellular Damage by Active Oxygen Speciesp. 207
Enzymatic Detoxificationp. 207
Small Molecule Antioxidantsp. 207
Active Oxygen in Resistance and Senescencep. 209
Crosslinking of Cell Wall Proteinsp. 209
Triggering of Programmed Cell Deathp. 209
Lesion Mimic Mutantsp. 209
Systemic Acquired Resistance and Salicylic Acidp. 210
Active Oxygen and Senescencep. 210
Mechanisms of Signal Transductionp. 211
Control of Transcription by Plastoquinone Redox Statep. 211
MAP Kinase Pathway Signalingp. 212
Conclusionsp. 212
Referencesp. 212
Nutrient Resorptionp. 215
Introductionp. 215
Potential and Realized Resorptionp. 216
Resorption Efficiency and Proficiencyp. 216
Macronutrients and Trace Metalsp. 217
Model I: Determinants of Potential Resorptionp. 218
Model II: Determinants of Realized Resorptionp. 220
Synthesisp. 223
Referencesp. 223
Whole Plant Senescencep. 227
Introductionp. 228
Objectivesp. 228
Patternsp. 228
What is Whole Plant Senescence?p. 229
Senescence Parametersp. 229
Importance of Chronological Agep. 229
Correlative Controlsp. 230
The Causes of Whole Plant Senescencep. 230
Evolution and Differences among Monocarpic Speciesp. 231
Complexity and the Rules of Evidencep. 231
What is the Cause of Monocarpic Senescence?p. 232
Loss of Vegetative Regenerative Capacityp. 232
Nutrient (and Hormone) Deficienciesp. 233
Death Hormone (Senescence Signal)p. 238
Senescence in Polycarpic Plants and Clonesp. 238
Reproductive Yieldp. 240
Referencesp. 241
Autumn Coloration, Carbon Acquisition and Leaf Senescencep. 245
Introductionp. 245
Progress of Autumn Coloration of a Tree Crownp. 246
Shoot Development and Leaf Senescencep. 247
Leaf Phenologyp. 247
Leaf Sheddingp. 248
Leaf Nitrogen Content and Light Environmentp. 250
Leaf Structure and Functionp. 252
Leaf Pigments and their Ecological Rolep. 253
Referencesp. 255
Annual Shoot Senescence in Perennialsp. 259
Introductionp. 259
Mayapple as a Study Organismp. 261
Sources of Variation in Endogenous Shoot Senescence Time in Mayapplep. 262
Among-Colony Variation in Mean Endogenous Shoot Senescence Timep. 262
Relationship between Endogenously Controlled Shoot Senescence Time and Current Demographic and Life History Expression and Rhizome Vigorp. 263
Historical Effects of Life History Expression Demography and Growth on Endogenously Controlled Shoot Senescence Timep. 264
The Effect of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Status on the Timing of Top Shoot Senescencep. 265
General Discussion of Factors Regulating the Timing of Top Senescence in Other Speciesp. 266
Referencesp. 267
Phototoxicityp. 271
Introductionp. 271
History of Phototoxicityp. 271
Targets and Sources of Phototoxinsp. 272
Chemical and Biochemical Basis of Phototoxicityp. 272
Chemistry of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)p. 272
Type I and Type II Reactionsp. 272
Phototoxic Compounds and their Roles in Naturep. 273
Acridine and Xanthene Dyes and Polyaromatic Hydrocarbonsp. 273
Plant Secondary Metabolitesp. 273
Porphyrins and Related Compoundsp. 276
Cercosporinp. 276
Herbicides and Heavy Metals Mediating Phototoxic Responsesp. 277
Is Photoinhibition of Photosynthesis a Phototoxicity Mechanism?p. 277
Phototoxicity and Programmed Cell Deathp. 278
Referencesp. 278
Ultraviolet Effectsp. 285
Introductionp. 285
Importance of Ultraviolet Radiation as an Environmental Factor for Plantsp. 286
Evolutionary Aspects and the Role of Ozonep. 286
Damage and Inhibition by UVp. 287
Regulation by UVp. 288
Stimulation by UVp. 288
UV and Plant Senescencep. 289
UV Acceleration of Senescencep. 289
UV Retardation of Senescencep. 289
Evidence for UV-induced PCD in a Plantp. 289
Pathways for UV-induced PCD in Animal Cellsp. 290
Possible Signaling Mediators between UV and PCD in Plantsp. 291
Conclusionp. 291
Referencesp. 292
Effects of Airborne Pollutantsp. 295
Introductionp. 295
Physiology and Biochemistry of Ozone-induced Accelerated Leaf Senescencep. 296
Mechanisms of Ozone-induced Accelerated Leaf Senescencep. 297
Implications of Senescence to the Whole Plantp. 301
Referencesp. 303
Physiology of Flower Senescencep. 307
Introductionp. 307
Model Systemsp. 307
Structural and Metabolic Changes Occurring during Senescencep. 308
Morphologyp. 308
Metabolic Changesp. 308
Flower Wiltingp. 310
Regulation of Senescencep. 310
Ethylene-induced Senescencep. 311
Ethylene-insensitive Senescencep. 312
Other Regulatory Patternsp. 313
Lipids and the Regulation of Senescencep. 313
Pollination and Senescencep. 314
The Pollination Signalp. 314
Referencesp. 316
Postharvest Senescence of Vegetables and its Regulationp. 319
Definitions and Theories of Vegetable Senescencep. 319
Specific Patterns of Senescence and its Regulation in Vegetablesp. 321
Tubers, Bulbs and Root Vegetablesp. 322
Leafy Vegetablesp. 323
Stem Vegetablesp. 324
Flower Vegetablesp. 325
Conclusions and Prospectsp. 326
Referencesp. 327
Evolutionary and Demographic Approaches to the Study of Whole Plant Senescencep. 331
Introductionp. 331
Evolutionary Approachesp. 332
Theories of Senescencep. 332
Tests of the Theoriesp. 334
Demographic Approachesp. 338
Distinguishing Age and Environmentp. 338
Unique Features of Plantsp. 341
Conclusionsp. 344
Referencesp. 345
Flower Longevityp. 349
Introductionp. 349
Patterns of Flower Longevity in Naturep. 350
Variationp. 350
Ecological and Phylogenetic Correlates of Flower Longevityp. 350
Evolutionary Perspectivep. 352
Model of Optimal Flower Longevityp. 352
Test of the Modelp. 355
Extensions of the Modelp. 356
Other Issuesp. 357
The Role of Plasticity in Floral Longevityp. 357
Other Selective Forces on Floral Longevityp. 359
Conclusions and Future Directionsp. 360
Referencesp. 360
Ecology of Leaf Senescencep. 363
Introductionp. 363
Photosynthesisp. 364
Herbivoryp. 365
Leaf Longevityp. 366
Theories of Leaf Longevityp. 367
Leaf Habit and Geographical Patternp. 368
Leaf Longevity in Different Ecosystemsp. 369
Referencesp. 370
Light Control of Senescencep. 375
Introductionp. 375
Effects of Darknessp. 376
Effects of Light Quantityp. 377
Effects of Light Qualityp. 377
Photoperiod Effectsp. 379
Relationships between Light Effects on Senescence and Hormonesp. 380
Genetic Alterations of Light Control of Senescencep. 381
Referencesp. 381
Epiloguep. 385
Indexp. 387
Table of Contents provided by Rittenhouse. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780125209151
ISBN-10: 0125209150
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 392
Published: 1st October 2003
Publisher: ACADEMIC PR INC
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 25.4 x 17.81  x 2.39
Weight (kg): 0.94