This book includes the fundamental science and applications of carbon-based materials, in particular fused polycyclic hydrocarbon, fullerene, diamond, carbides, graphite and graphene etc. During the past decade, these carbon-based materials have attracted much interest from many scientists and engineers because of their exciting physical properties and potential application toward electronic and energy devices. In this book, the fundamental theory referring to these materials, their syntheses and characterizations, the physical properties (physics), and the applications are fully described, which will contribute to an advancement of not only basic science in this research field but also technology using these materials. The book's targets are researchers and engineers in the field and graduate school students who specialize in physics, chemistry, and materials science. Thus, this book addresses the physics and chemistry of the principal materials in the twenty-first century.