In recent years, it has become clear that the red-giant phase is one of the most dramatic periods in a star's life, when all of its parts become involved in ways that have both direct and indirect observational consequences. This is most particularly true of low- and intermediate- mass stars during the second ascent of the giant branch. Such stars bring to their surfaces products of nucleosynthesis currently taking place in their deep interiors, they pulsate as Mira variables, develop extended outward-flowing atmospheres that may exhibit maser properties, and shed great quantities of matter, sometimes highly processed, into the inter- stellar medium. The manner in which processed matter is brought to the surface is far from being completely explained, and the precise mechanism or mechanisms whereby matter is ejected from the stellar surface (whether by deposition of Alfven waves, radiation pressure on grains, or as a consequence of so- me large scale envelope instability) has yet to be elucidated to every- one's satisfaction. The purpose of the second workshop in Astrophysics, organized by the "Advanced School of Astronomy", was to bring together experts on all the physical processes occurring in red giants in an effort to emphasize the interrelatedness of these individual processes, and to encourage a dia- logue among experts that might serve to initiate a synthesis, or at least sharpen our understanding of the most important problems to address in the future.
Evolution and Composition Peculiarities of Red Giants.- On the Interior Properties of Red Giants.- The Photospheres of Red-Giant Stars.- Color Temperatures of Red Giants and their Relation to the Effective Temperature.- Carbon Star Effective Temperatures.- The Effect of [CNO/FE] on Evolution of Extremely Metal Poor Red Giants.- Globular Cluster Giant Branches and the Helium Flash: A Comparison between Observation and Theory.- M Giants in the Nuclear Bulge of the Galaxy.- On the Metal Abundance of Giants in the Draco Dwarf Galaxy - Preliminary Results of a Spectroscopic Survey.- Observations and Theories of Mixing in Red Giants.- The Chemical Composition of Red Giants - The First Dredge-Up Phase.- The Conditions for Dredge-Up of Carbon during the Helium Shell Flash and the Production of Carbon Stars.- More Details on Thermal Pulses and the Third Dredge-Up Process in Intermediate-Mass Stars.- Low Dispersion Surveys for Carbon Stars.- The Luminosity Function of Carbon Stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud.- Observed Bolometric Luminosities of Carbon Stars.- Carbon Stars in the Magellanic Clouds: Theory vs. Observations.- On The Stability of Nuclear-Burning Regions in Red Giants.- Why Do Stars Become Red Giants?.- Mass Loss from Massive Stars throughout the HR Diagram.- Red-Giant Variability and Envelope Dynamics.- Red Variables of Spectral Class M.- Theoretical Aspects of Pulsation and Envelope Ejection in Red Giants.- Theoretical Relationships between Observable Quantities for Mira Variables.- Linear Polarization Changes across TiO Bands in Cool Variables: V CVn.- The Expansion Velocities in Mira Envelopes.- Radiation Pressure on Molecules in Mira Variable Atmospheres.- Winds: Chromospheres, Grains, or What?.- Outer Atmospheres of Late-Type Stars.- Ultraviolet Observations of ?4 Serpentis (M5 IIb-IIIa).- Winds in Red Giants.- Origin of Winds in Cool Giants and Supergiants.- Acceleration of Mass Flow in the Chromosphere of ? Orionis.- Timescale of Possible Episodic Behavior in Mass Loss from Cool Stars.- Mass Loss in Population II Red Giants.- Dust Formation Processes Around Red Giants and Supergiants.- Spectoscopy and Chemical Kinetic Studies of the Circumstellar Shell IRC + 10216.- Erosion of N2 Frozen Gas by MeV Helium Ions.- Why Not Make Dust in Photospheres of M Stars?.- Time-Dependent Models of Grain-Forming Atmospheres.- A Statistical Theory of Stellar Winds.- Mass Loss from Warm Giants: Magnetic Effects.- Red-Giant Masers.- Red Giant Masers.- Time Variations of OH Masers in Late-Type Stars.- Detection of a New SiO Maser Line.- OH and IR Emission from Red Giants.- Infrared Observations of OH/IR Stars.- Red-Giant Remnants: Planetary Nebulae.- Planetary Nebulae and Stellar Evolution.- From Red Giants to Planetary Nebulae.- The Properties of Dust in Planetary Nebulae.- Red Giants as Precursors of Planetary Nebulae.- The Position of the Central Stars of Planetary Nebulae in the Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram.- Masses and Evolution of Central Stars of Planetary Nebulae.- Name Index.- Object Index.