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Photosynthesis in Algae : Advances in Photosynthesis and Respiration - Anthony W. D. Larkum

Photosynthesis in Algae

Advances in Photosynthesis and Respiration

By: Anthony W. D. Larkum (Editor), S. Douglas (Editor), John A. Raven (Editor)

Hardcover Published: 30th November 2003
ISBN: 9780792363330
Number Of Pages: 480

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II. Algal Symbiotic Associations 439 III. The Host-Algal Interface 439 IV. Carbon Acquisition, Fixation and Secretion 440 V. Photoacclimation and Photoadaptation 446 447 VI. Coral Bleaching and Photoinhibition References 450 Index 457 xv xvii xviii xix xx Color Plates - Color Plate I . A. Colonies ofthe green volvocalean alga Volvox. Scale bar, 30 Jlffi. B. A thallus ofthe red alga La urencia intrica ta. Scale bar, I em. C. Part of a thallus of the brown alga Sargassum, Scale bar, I cm. D. The cryptomonad Cryptomonas sp. under the light microscope. The several plastids in each cell are readily seen. The two equal Ilagella are not so easily seen under the light microscope. Scale bar, 2Jlffi. Photography by M Ricketts. See Chapter I, p. 4. Anthony W. Larkum, Susan E. Douglas and John A. Raven (eds): Photosynth esis in Algae, pp.CP1- CP.J. (c) 2003 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in The Netherlands. Color Plates Color Plate 2. Confoc al images of chlorophyll fluorescence in various ehlorophytes. A. Oedogonium (species unknown, local collection); x3,300 . B. Cladophora (specie s unknown, local collect ion); x2,800. C. Spirogyra (species unknown , local collection) x31O. C.( Inset) Spirogyra as in C. at x 3000. D. Klebsormidium fla ccidum (UTEX #LB2017) X2,300. E Nitella translucens (Wasteneys collection) X24000. All scale bars Slim except low magnification ofSpirogyra which is 100 J.1m.Micrographs kindly provided by Brian Gunnin g: for further details and descriptions, see Gunning and Schwartz, 1999. See Chapter 2, p. 17 .

From the reviews: "The reviewed book belongs ! to the well-known series 'Advances in Photosynthesis and Respiration' ! . The book consists of 19 chapters written by well-known photosynthesis researchers working in countries all over the world. ! The book is supplemented with a good subject index. ! The book brings a basic material for every laboratory dealing with algae or light-harvesting complexes." (Z. Sestak, Photosynthetica, 2006) "This book, the 14th volume of the series 'Advances in photosynthesis and respiration' successfully embraces in 479 pages all the major fields within the wide topic of algal photosynthesis. ! The quality of the figures and indeed the execution in general are of high standard. I have no hesitation in recommending the book to undergraduate students and to researchers in diverse fields of algology, plantphysiology, photosynthesis and evolutionary sciences. It can be used equally well as a study book or as a scientific source book." (K. Szabo, Acta Botanica Hungarica, Vol. 46 (3-4), 2004)

Editorialp. v
Contentsp. ix
Prefacep. xvi
Color Platesp. 1
Introductory Chapters
The Algae and their General Characteristicsp. 1
Summaryp. 1
Introductionp. 2
The Algae: Their Origins and Diversityp. 2
The Green, Red and Brown Algaep. 4
The Chromophytesp. 4
The Chlorarachniophytesp. 7
The Euglenophytesp. 7
Algal Genomesp. 7
Algae as Sources of Natural Productsp. 8
Concluding Remarksp. 8
Acknowledgementsp. 9
Referencesp. 9
Algal Plastids: Their Fine Structure and Propertiesp. 11
Summaryp. 11
Introductionp. 12
Origin of Plastidsp. 12
Chlorophyte Plastidsp. 13
Rhodophyte Plastidsp. 16
Cyanelles (Glaucocystophyte Plastids)p. 18
Cryptophyte Plastidsp. 18
Chlorarachniophyte Plastidsp. 20
Euglenophyte Plastidsp. 20
Dinoflagellate Plastidsp. 20
Chrysophyte (Ochrophyte) Plastidsp. 22
Phaeophyte, Bacillariophyte, Eustigmatophyte, Raphidophyte, Synurophyte, Pelagophyte, Silicoflagellate, Pedinellid and Xanthophyte Plastidsp. 23
Haptophyte Plastidsp. 23
Apicomplexan Plastidsp. 24
Kleptoplastidsp. 24
Microstructure of the Thylakoid Membranep. 24
Acknowledgmentsp. 26
Referencesp. 26
The Photosynthetic Apparatus of Chlorophyll b- and d-Containing Oxyphotobacteriap. 29
Summaryp. 29
Introductionp. 30
Advances in Photosynthesis in Chlorophyll b- and d-Containing Oxyphotobacteriap. 32
Green Oxyphotobacteria and the Endosymbiotic Theory of Green Plastids Evolutionp. 51
Concluding Remarksp. 55
Acknowledgmentsp. 56
Referencesp. 56
Molecular Genetics of Algae
Structure and Regulation of Algal Light-Harvesting Complex Genesp. 63
Summaryp. 63
Introductionp. 64
Higher Plant Light-Harvesting Complexesp. 64
Algal Light-Harvesting Complexesp. 67
Origin and Evolution of the Light-Harvesting Antennaep. 76
Concluding Remarksp. 77
Acknowledgmentsp. 77
Referencesp. 77
Functional Analysis of Plastid Genes through Chloroplast Reverse Genetics in Chlamydomonasp. 83
Summaryp. 83
Introductionp. 84
Algal Chloroplast Transformationp. 84
Reverse Chloroplast Genetics of Photosynthesisp. 85
Several ycfs Encode Novel Proteins Involved in Photosynthesisp. 87
Chloroplast Reverse Genetics of Essential Genes of Chlamydomonasp. 89
Conclusions and Prospectsp. 92
Acknowledgmentsp. 92
Referencesp. 92
Biochemistry and Regulation of Chlorophyll Biosynthesisp. 95
Summaryp. 96
Introductionp. 96
An Overview of Tetrapyrroles and Their Derivativesp. 96
Chlorophyll Forms and Their Distribution in Algal Speciesp. 98
Early Steps in Chlorophyll Biosynthesisp. 98
The Pathway from ALA to Protoporphyrin IXp. 102
The Iron Branchp. 107
The Magnesium Branch--Chlorophyll a Formationp. 108
Biosynthesis of Chlorophyll b and Other Algal Chlorophyllsp. 119
Acknowledgmentsp. 122
Referencesp. 122
Summaryp. 133
Biochemistry and Physiology of Algae
Oxygenic Photosynthesis in Algae and Cyanobacteria: Electron Transfer in Photosystems I and IIp. 133
Summaryp. 133
Introductionp. 134
Overview of Photosystems I and IIp. 134
Mutagenesis and Genetic Engineering of the Photosystemsp. 135
Photosystem II Functionp. 139
Photosystem II Structurep. 143
Photosystem Ip. 146
Conclusionsp. 151
Acknowledgmentp. 151
Referencesp. 151
Oxygen Consumption: Photorespiration and Chlororespirationp. 157
Summaryp. 158
Introductionp. 158
Photorespirationp. 159
Chlororespiration: A Mechanism to Maintain Thylakoid Membrane Energization in the Dark?p. 168
Acknowledgmentsp. 178
Referencesp. 179
The Water-Water Cycle in Algaep. 183
Summaryp. 184
Introductionp. 184
The Water-Water Cycle in Plant Chloroplastsp. 185
Operation of the Water-Water Cycle in Cyanobacteria and Eukaryotic Algaep. 189
Scavenging System of O[subscript 2]--and H[subscript 2]O[subscript 2] in the Algal Water-Water Cyclep. 190
Physiological Functions of the Water-Water Cycle in Cyanobacteria and Eukaryotic Algaep. 196
Concluding Remarksp. 197
Acknowledgmentp. 198
Referencesp. 198
Carbohydrate Metabolism and Respiration in Algaep. 205
Summaryp. 205
Introductionp. 206
Carbohydrate Metabolism: Low Mr Compoundsp. 207
Carbohydrate Metabolism: Storage Polysaccharidesp. 208
Carbohydrate Metabolism: Structural Polysaccharidesp. 209
Respiration: Carbon Pathwaysp. 211
Respiration: Redox Reactions and Energy Conservationp. 213
Respiration: Spatial and Temporal Aspectsp. 218
Quantifying Carbohydrate Metabolism and Respiration in Relation to Growth and Maintenancep. 220
Acknowledgmentsp. 221
Referencesp. 221
Carbon Acquisition Mechanisms of Algae: Carbon Dioxide Diffusion and Carbon Dioxide Concentrating Mechanismsp. 225
Summaryp. 226
Introductionp. 226
Rubisco Kinetic Properties in Relation to the CO[subscript 2] and O[subscript 2] Concentrations in Cyanobacterial and Algal Habitatsp. 226
Lines of Evidence Used in Distinguishing Organisms Relying on Diffusive CO[subscript 2] Entry from Those Using Carbon Concentrating Mechanisms (CCMs)p. 229
Occurrence and Mechanism of CCMsp. 230
Evolution of CCMsp. 240
Conclusions and Prospectsp. 240
Acknowledgmentsp. 241
Referencesp. 241
Light-Harvesting Systems in Algae
Modeling the Excitation Energy Capture in Thylakoid Membranesp. 245
Summaryp. 246
Introductionp. 246
Structural Composition of the Thylakoid Membranep. 247
Experimental Approachesp. 253
Kinetic Modeling of the Thylakoid Membranep. 256
Concluding Remarksp. 271
Acknowledgmentsp. 271
Referencesp. 272
Light-Harvesting Systems in Algaep. 277
Summaryp. 278
Introductionp. 278
Chlorophyllsp. 279
Light-Harvesting Proteinsp. 283
Optimizing Light-Harvesting Architecturep. 285
Problems with Photosystem IIp. 287
Off-Loading Excess Light Energy: Xanthophyll Cycle and Reaction Center Sinksp. 288
Control of Light Harvestingp. 291
Acknowledgmentsp. 299
Referencesp. 299
Red, Cryptomonad and Glaucocystophyte Algal Phycobiliproteinsp. 305
Summaryp. 306
Introductionp. 306
Structure and Components of Phycobilisomesp. 307
Molecular Biology of Red Algal, Glaucocystophyte and Cryptomonad Phycobiliproteinsp. 310
Phycobiliprotein Structurep. 311
Phycobiliprotein Typesp. 315
Phycobiliprotein Crystal Structurep. 319
Bilin Chromophoresp. 322
Energy Transferp. 326
Applications/Industrial Usesp. 328
Referencesp. 329
Carotenoids of Light Harvesting Systems: Energy Transfer Processes from Fucoxanthin and Peridinin to Chlorophyllp. 335
Summaryp. 335
Introductionp. 336
Distribution of Carotenoids in Algaep. 336
Optical Properties of Carotenoids in Relation to Functionsp. 337
Functionsp. 343
Antenna Function of Carotenoids in Algaep. 344
Electronic States and Dynamic Properties of Moleculesp. 345
Energy Transfer Processes and Mechanismp. 346
Referencesp. 348
General Aspects of Photosynthesis in Algae
Photoinhibition, UV-B and Algal Photosynthesisp. 351
Summaryp. 352
Introductionp. 352
The Algal Light Climatep. 354
Photoinhibition by PARp. 357
Effects of UV Radiationp. 364
Photoinhibition and UV Stress in the Fieldp. 371
Scope for Further Researchp. 373
Acknowledgmentp. 375
Referencesp. 375
Adaptation, Acclimation and Regulation in Algal Photosynthesisp. 385
Summaryp. 386
Introductionp. 386
The Range of Resource Availabilities and Other Environmental Factors within Which Algae Can Photosynthesizep. 389
Adaptation of the Photosynthetic Apparatusp. 390
Adaptation of Algal Photosynthesis to Environmental Extremesp. 396
Acclimation of Algal Photosynthesisp. 400
Regulation of Algal Photosynthesisp. 406
Rates of Regulation and Acclimationp. 407
Conclusionsp. 408
Acknowledgmentsp. 409
Referencesp. 409
Photosynthesis in Marine Macroalgaep. 413
Summaryp. 413
Introductionp. 414
Radiation Conditions in Coastal Watersp. 415
Light Absorption by Macroalgaep. 417
Determination of Photosynthetic Ratesp. 418
Effects of Excessive Light on Photosynthesisp. 423
Algal Photosynthesis Under Low Light Conditionsp. 427
Seasonal Photosynthetic Performance of Macroalgaep. 427
Adaptation and Acclimation of Photosynthesis and Respiration to Temperature and Salinityp. 428
Referencesp. 429
Photosynthesis in Symbiotic Algaep. 437
Summaryp. 437
Introductionp. 438
Algal Symbiotic Associationsp. 439
The Host-Algal Interfacep. 439
Carbon Acquisition, Fixation and Secretionp. 440
Photoacclimation and Photoadaptationp. 446
Coral Bleaching and Photoinhibitionp. 447
Referencesp. 450
Indexp. 457
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780792363330
ISBN-10: 0792363337
Series: Advances in Photosynthesis and Respiration
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 480
Published: 30th November 2003
Publisher: Springer
Country of Publication: NL
Dimensions (cm): 27.9 x 21.0  x 2.03
Weight (kg): 1.41

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