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Photorefractive Optics : Materials, Properties, and Applications - Francis T. S. Yu

Photorefractive Optics

Materials, Properties, and Applications

Hardcover Published: 1st October 1999
ISBN: 9780127748108
Number Of Pages: 570

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The advances of photorefractive optics have demonstrated many useful and practical applications, which include the development of photorefractive optic devices for computer communication needs. To name a couple significant applications: the large capacity optical memory, which can greatly improve the accessible high-speed CD-ROM and the dynamic photorefractive gratings, which can be used for all-optic switches for high-speed fiber optic networks. This book is an important reference both for technical and non-technical staffs who are interested in this field.

* Covers the recent development in materials, phenomena, and applications
* Includes growth, characterization, dynamic gratings, and liquid crystal PR effect
* Includes applications to photonic devices such as large capacity optical memory, 3-D interconnections, and dynamic holograms
* Provides the recent overall picture of current trends in photorefractive optics
* Includes optical and electronic properties of the materials as applied to dynamic photorefractive fiber

Industry Reviews

Sixteen chapters present the fundamental aspects and the recent advances of photorefractive optics, particularly potential applications in the area of informational infrastructures. The volume begins with the standard photoreactive models, optical properties, wave mixing, hologram formation memories, three-dimensional data storage dynamic, interconnections, space-time processing, and application of photoreflective material to wavefront connection and to femtosecond lasers. The final chapter discusses the dynamic process of photoreflective fibers.Book News, Inc.(r), Portland, OR

Contributing Authorsp. xv
Prefacep. xix
Standard Photorefractive Model as a Foundation of Real-Time Holographyp. 1
Introduction (photorefractive "Old Testament")p. 1
Basic equationsp. 3
Small-contrast approximationp. 6
Space-charge waves and dispersion relationsp. 7
High-contrast gratingsp. 8
Photoinduced anisotropic photoconductivity for optical interconnection of two electric circuitsp. 9
Photoconductivity grating as an optically scanning antennap. 11
Subharmonic domains of the space-charge wavesp. 11
Formation of the spatiotemporal patterns and domains, optical channelingp. 13
Conversion of heat into electric current by moving gratingsp. 16
Basic model of thermoelectric transient currentp. 17
Solution of the basic equationsp. 19
Conclusionsp. 21
Acknowledgementsp. 22
Referencesp. 22
Light-Induced Charge Transport in Photorefractive Crystalsp. 25
Summaryp. 25
Introductionp. 25
One-center modelp. 26
Two-center modelp. 28
Three-valence modelp. 32
Charge transport in different crystalsp. 34
Conclusionsp. 37
Acknowledgmentp. 38
Referencesp. 38
Nonlinear Self-Organization in Photorefractive Materialsp. 43
Introductionp. 43
Basic experimental observationsp. 48
Theoryp. 55
Fabry-Perot modesp. 55
Model equationsp. 56
Instability criterion and the dispersion relationp. 57
Nonlinear eigenmodes in the steady statep. 59
Self-phase conjugationp. 66
Model of hexagonal formation based on transverse electrical instabilityp. 66
Conclusionp. 68
Acknowledgmentp. 69
Referencesp. 69
Liquid Crystal Photorefractive Optics: Dynamic and Storage Holographic Grating Formation, Wave Mixing, and Beam/Image Processingp. 75
Summaryp. 75
Introductionp. 76
Nematic films under applied dc bias fieldp. 77
Space-charge field formation and refractive index changep. 77
Optical wave mixing effects in C60 doped filmsp. 82
Self-diffraction in homeotropically and planar aligned filmp. 82
Beam amplification--theory and experimentsp. 84
Storage grating capabilityp. 86
Methyl red-doped nematic liquid crystal filmsp. 90
Optical wave mixing and transient grating diffractionp. 90
Optically induced dc voltagesp. 94
Self-defocusing and limiting at nanowatt cw laser powerp. 96
Image processing--incoherent to coherent image conversion, adaptive opticsp. 98
Storage holographic grating formationp. 100
Conclusionp. 101
Acknowledgmentp. 102
Referencesp. 102
Spectral and Spatial Diffraction in a Nonlinear Photorefractive Hologramp. 105
Nonlinear beam coupling and erasure dynamics on hologram diffraction spectral characteristicsp. 106
Coupled-recording-wave approach for PR reflection hologramsp. 107
Spectral diffraction characteristicsp. 110
Refractive-index anisotropy on hologram spatial diffraction propertiesp. 113
Spatial diffraction propertiesp. 115
Effect on reconstructed hologram image fidelity and on multiplexing schemep. 119
Anisotropic intrasignal couplingp. 122
Conclusionsp. 125
Acknowledgmentp. 128
Referencesp. 128
Holographic Memory Systems Using Photorefractive Materialsp. 131
Abstractp. 131
Introductionp. 132
Data storage density of two-dimensional hologramsp. 134
The effect of noise on storage densityp. 136
The role of optics in the realization of high storage densityp. 136
Holographic random access data storage systemp. 138
Suppression of interference noise by optimizing spatial spectra of two-dimensional hologramsp. 144
Superresolution approach for increasing storage densityp. 148
Photorefractive materials for rewritable hologramsp. 151
Holographic memory systems using photorefractive crystalsp. 155
Nondestructive reading of 3-D holograms recorded in photorefractive crystalsp. 159
Application of reflection hologramsp. 162
Holographic memory systems using one-dimensional hologramsp. 163
Three-dimensional multilayer holographic memoryp. 167
Interference noises in three-dimensional data carriers and volume storage densityp. 170
Conclusionp. 172
Acknowledgmentp. 174
Referencesp. 174
Cross Talk in Volume Holographic Memoryp. 177
Cross talkp. 178
Angle-multiplexed Fourier plane holographic memoryp. 178
Wavelength-multiplexed Fourier plane holographic memoryp. 193
Angle-multiplexed image plane holographic memoryp. 196
Grating Detuningp. 208
Plane reference wavep. 213
Gaussian reference wavep. 223
Conclusionsp. 229
Referencesp. 230
Imaging and Storage with Spherical-Reference Volume Hologramsp. 233
Introductionp. 233
Volume holographic systemsp. 235
Multiplexing schemes and architecturesp. 235
Volume holographic materialsp. 240
Volume diffraction theoryp. 242
Shift multiplexingp. 243
Introductory remarksp. 243
Volume diffraction from spherical-reference hologramsp. 245
Shift selectivity in the transmission geometryp. 249
Volume holographic degeneracies in the transmission geometryp. 250
Imaging with volume hologramsp. 252
Introductory remarksp. 252
Reflection geometry, plane-wave signalp. 256
Reflection geometry, spherical wave signalp. 260
90[degree] geometry, plane-wave signalp. 262
90[degree] geometry, spherical wave signalp. 266
Concluding remarksp. 268
Referencesp. 268
Three-Dimensionally Photorefractive Bit-Oriented Digital Memoryp. 277
Abstractp. 277
Introduction: limitation and breakthrough of optical high-density data storagep. 278
Materials and optics for three-dimensional digital optical memoryp. 279
Three-dimensional photopolymer memoryp. 282
Lithium niobate three-dimensional digital memoryp. 286
Two-photon recording in lithium niobatep. 290
Fixing the datap. 292
Photocromic recording in photorefractive crystalsp. 296
Photorefractive photochromic memoryp. 296
Optical design for reflection confocal memoryp. 298
Concluding remarks: comparison with other advanced data storagesp. 301
Referencesp. 303
Conditions for Confocal Readout of Three-Dimensional Photorefractive data bitsp. 307
Abstractp. 307
Introductionp. 308
Three-dimensional bit data storagep. 309
Confocal scanning microscopyp. 311
Passband of the 3-D coherent transfer function for reflection confocal microscopyp. 313
Spatial frequency response of 3-D data bits recorded by the single-photon photorefractive effectp. 317
Spatial frequency response of 3-D data bits recorded by the two-photon photorefractive effectp. 320
Effect of refractive index mismatchp. 324
Conclusionp. 328
Acknowledgmentsp. 329
Referencesp. 329
Three-Dimensional Photorefractive Memory Based on Phase-Code and Rotational Multiplexingp. 333
Introductionp. 333
Phase-code multiplexingp. 335
Construction of Hadamard phase-codes for holographic memoriesp. 337
Utilization of Hadamard phase-codes of m [not equal] 2[superscript n] in holographic memoriesp. 343
Increase storage density by rotation multiplexingp. 346
Demonstration with off-the-shelf devicesp. 350
Demonstration system designp. 350
Performance potentialp. 355
Conclusionsp. 357
Acknowledgmentsp. 358
Referencesp. 358
Compact Holographic Memory Modulep. 361
Abstractp. 361
Introductionp. 362
Conjugate readout methodp. 363
Dynamic hologram refresher chipp. 365
Periodic copyingp. 366
Compact fast-access architecturep. 371
Readoutp. 373
System volume densityp. 374
Recording ratep. 375
Costp. 376
Pixel size limit for hologramsp. 377
Roadmap for a competitive HRAM technologyp. 379
Conclusionp. 381
Acknowledgmentsp. 382
Referencesp. 382
Dynamic Interconnections Using Photorefractive Crystalsp. 385
Introductionp. 385
Photorefractive waveguidesp. 387
Fabricationp. 390
Model of photorefractive waveguidesp. 394
Modification of waveguide structure for dynamic interconnectionsp. 397
Applicationp. 404
Segmented photorefractive waveguidep. 405
Fabricationp. 406
Tolerance for fabrication errorsp. 411
Transformation of waveguide structure for dynamic interconnectionsp. 412
Array of photorefractive waveguidesp. 415
Fabrication techniquep. 416
Experimentsp. 417
Maximum density of photorefractive waveguidesp. 419
Summaryp. 423
Referencesp. 424
Self-Pumped Phase Conjugation in BaTiO[subscript 3]:Rh for Dynamic Wavefront Correction of Nd:YAG Lasersp. 431
Characterization of the materialsp. 432
Characterization with continuous-wave illuminationp. 433
Performances of oxidized crystalsp. 439
Characterization with nanosecond illuminationp. 443
Self-Pumped Phase Conjugationp. 449
Internal loop self-pumped phase conjugate mirrorp. 450
Ring self-pumped phase conjugationp. 452
Dynamic wavefront correction of MOPA laser sourcesp. 464
Origin of aberrations in Nd:YAG amplifier rodsp. 465
MOPA laser sources including a photorefractive self-pumped phase conjugate mirrorp. 466
Comparison of photorefractive self-pumped phase conjugation to other existing techniquesp. 471
Conclusionp. 475
Referencesp. 477
Space-Time Processing with Photorefractive Volume Holography Using Femtosecond Laser Pulsesp. 485
Introductionp. 485
Spatial-domain holographyp. 486
Temporal holographyp. 487
Time-domain holographyp. 487
Spectral holographyp. 499
Space-time holographic processingp. 507
Summary and future directionsp. 514
Acknowledgmentsp. 515
Referencesp. 515
Dynamics of Photorefractive Fibersp. 519
Introductionp. 519
Fabrication of photorefractive fibersp. 520
Constructing photorefractive fiber hologramsp. 523
Selectivities of fiber hologramsp. 526
Cross talk noisep. 533
Recording erasure dynamicsp. 537
Storage capacityp. 544
Application to photonic devicesp. 547
As applied to holographic memoriesp. 547
As applied to fiber sensorsp. 549
As applied to tunable filtersp. 551
As applied to true-time delay linesp. 556
Conclusionp. 560
Referencesp. 561
Indexp. 565
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780127748108
ISBN-10: 0127748105
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 570
Published: 1st October 1999
Publisher: ACADEMIC PR INC
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 23.67 x 15.82  x 3.15
Weight (kg): 0.94

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