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Phonology : An Introduction to Basic Concepts - Roger Lass

Phonology

An Introduction to Basic Concepts

Paperback Published: 24th September 1984
ISBN: 9780521281836
Number Of Pages: 384

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What is the phonological organisation of natural languages like? What theoretical and analytical approaches are most fruitful? Is there any phonological theory that is 'the best' in all ways? The student of phonology is currently faced with a number of major and apparently competing theories, and the textbook writer who genuinely wishes to confront these questions is faced with the task of assessing the contribution each theory can make, while avoiding the merely fashionable or ephemeral in this contentious and evolving discipline. Roger Lass sees phonology as essentially a problem-centred discipline. Since in his view none of the supposedly comprehensive answers proposed to the questions raised above is really comprehensive or acceptable in all its detail, he concentrates rather on introducing the student to the perennial concerns in the study of sound structure. Hence his book adopts a broad and eclectic framework, unbiased toward any one model or theory. Instead, important aspects of the phenomenology of sound structure are discussed in relation to the particular phonological theory - be it Prague phonology, American structuralism, prosodic phonology, generative phonology - for which they are most salient. The book surveys a wide range of competing theories, analytical strategies, and notational systems, and attempts to provide a coherent intellectual and historical perspective on a discipline which has too often been viewed recently as developing via a series of 'revolutions'. Although this textbook assumes some command of phonetics, little other linguistic background is presupposed, and the author carefully provides the groundwork for each new development before it is introduced. In addition, the book deals in detail with two areas not customarily treated extensively in introductory texts; the phonology of casual speech, and phonological change. This spirited and original synthesis will enable its readers to acquire a real understanding of the fundamentals of phonology.

Prefacep. xiii
To the studentp. xvii
Preliminaries: what is phonology? and some related mattersp. 1
The domainp. 1
Areas of agreementp. 3
On facts, theories, and 'truth'p. 6
Notes and referencesp. 9
Foundations: the phoneme conceptp. 11
Segmentation and classificationp. 11
Units, realizations, distributionsp. 14
'Excess' of data: the phoneme as a solutionp. 15
Criteria for phonemic statusp. 18
Phonemic analysis and restricting conditionsp. 21
Simplicity, symmetry, pattern: the 'as-if' argumentp. 25
Problems, I: biuniqueness and overlappingp. 27
Problems, II: linearity violationsp. 30
Problems, III: separation of levelsp. 31
Problems, IV: 'failure' of allophonic rulesp. 34
A salvage operation for separation of levels: 'juncture' phonemesp. 36
Notes and referencesp. 38
Opposition, neutralization, featuresp. 39
Neutralization and the archiphonemep. 39
The structure of phonological oppositionsp. 41
Multiple neutralizationp. 46
Neutralization types and archiphoneme 'representatives'p. 49
Neutralization vs. defective distribution: reprisep. 51
Notes and referencesp. 53
Interfaces: morphophonemic alternations and sandhip. 55
Morphophonemic alternationsp. 55
Morphophonemics as an 'interlevel'p. 57
Process morphophonemics: Bloomfieldp. 59
The Unique Underlier Conditionp. 63
The UUC and the Latin consonant-stemsp. 64
Summary: implications of underlying forms and processesp. 68
Sandhip. 69
Notes and referencesp. 73
'Ultimate constituents', 1: binary featuresp. 75
Feature theoryp. 75
Jakobsonian distinctive featuresp. 75
Distinctiveness and redundancyp. 78
Features and 'natural classes'p. 80
A tentative set of segmental phonological featuresp. 82
Major class featuresp. 83
Cavity featuresp. 84
Primary stricturesp. 84
Tongue-body featuresp. 85
Some problems in vowel specificationp. 86
Multiple articulationsp. 87
Lip attitudep. 88
Length of stricturep. 89
Secondary aperturesp. 89
Manner featuresp. 89
Source featuresp. 90
Aspirationp. 91
Long vowels, diphthongs, and long consonantsp. 91
Airstreamsp. 92
Features in phonological description: first stepsp. 93
Segment inventoriesp. 95
Phonological rulesp. 97
Capturing natural classes: the role of acoustic featuresp. 97
Notes and referencesp. 100
'Ultimate constituents', 2: non-binary features and internal segment structurep. 102
The homogeneity assumptionp. 102
Dissolving binarity: arguments from vowel heightp. 104
Non-binary consonantal featuresp. 107
Internal segment structure, 1: sequential valuesp. 111
Internal segment structure, 2: the concept of 'gesture'p. 113
A problem: auditory/articulatory asymmetry in vowelsp. 118
Notes and referencesp. 122
Phonological systemsp. 125
The status of systemsp. 125
The English Vowel Shift: the argument from non-participationp. 126
The argument from cyclical shiftsp. 129
Phonological universals and markednessp. 131
System typology, I: vowel systemsp. 134
Introduction: what phonemes does a language 'have'?p. 134
Long vowels and diphthongsp. 135
Basic vowel system typesp. 139
System typology, II: consonant systemsp. 147
Obstruents, 1: stopsp. 147
Obstruents, 2: fricativesp. 151
Some generalizations about obstruentsp. 153
Sonorants, 1: nasalsp. 155
Sonorants, 2: 'liquids'p. 157
Sonorants, 3: 'semivowels' ('glides', vocoid approximants)p. 159
What phonemes does a language 'have'? revisitedp. 160
Polysystematicity and neutralizationp. 163
Notes and referencesp. 166
Phonological processesp. 169
The concept of process: terminology, theory, problemsp. 169
Assimilation and dissimilationp. 171
Direction and contiguityp. 171
Basic assimilation and dissimilation typesp. 173
Acoustic assimilationp. 175
Phonological strengthp. 177
Lenition and fortitionp. 177
Preferential environments and 'protection'p. 181
More on strength hierarchiesp. 183
Whole segment processes: insertion, deletion, reorderingp. 183
Insertionp. 184
Deletionp. 186
Reorderingp. 188
Complex processes and abbreviatory notationsp. 190
Natural processes, evaluation measures, and explanationp. 195
Notes and referencesp. 201
The limits of abstraction: generative phonologyp. 203
The conceptual core: 'relation by mediation'p. 203
Abstract analysis: the German velar nasalp. 205
'Abstract segments' and absolute neutralization: Hungarian vowel harmonyp. 208
Some arguments against abstract solutionsp. 211
Testing abstract analyses: the role of external evidencep. 214
Constraining the theoryp. 222
Abstractness: some conclusionsp. 232
Notes and referencesp. 233
Beyond the segment: prosodies, syllables, and quantityp. 236
'Reduction': how primitive are primitives?p. 236
Prosodic phonologyp. 238
A first approach to prosodiesp. 238
Types of prosodiesp. 242
The prosodic treatment of vowel harmonyp. 244
Syllablesp. 248
Preliminariesp. 248
The reality of the syllable: quantityp. 250
Canonical quantity and 'compensation'p. 257
More arguments for the syllablep. 260
Delimiting syllablesp. 262
Interludesp. 267
Notes and referencesp. 268
Dependency relationsp. 271
The concept of dependencyp. 271
Intrasegmental dependencies: the structure of vowelsp. 274
Vocalic processes in a dependency frameworkp. 279
The structure of consonants: the categorial gesturep. 282
The articulatory gesturep. 285
The initiatory gesturep. 289
Lenition revisitedp. 291
Notes and referencesp. 293
Non-static phonology: connected speech and variationp. 294
Preliminariesp. 294
Connected and casual speechp. 295
Systemic effects, tempo hierarchies, and rule interactionsp. 298
Variation and variables: the social dimensionp. 304
Individual variation: the lexical dimensionp. 310
Notes and referencesp. 313
Phonological changep. 315
What changes? Phonetic change and phonologizationp. 315
Split and mergerp. 318
Morphophonemic rules, morphologization, and analogyp. 320
The mechanism of sound changep. 322
'Regularity' and reconstructabilityp. 322
Lexical diffusion and the origin of regularityp. 324
Phonetic gradulness: variation and changep. 329
Phonetic gradualness and 'missing links'p. 332
Notes and referencesp. 338
Phonetic and other symbolsp. 339
Referencesp. 343
General indexp. 353
Index of namesp. 361
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780521281836
ISBN-10: 0521281830
Series: Cambridge Textbooks in Linguistics
Audience: Professional
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 384
Published: 24th September 1984
Publisher: CAMBRIDGE UNIV PR
Country of Publication: GB
Dimensions (cm): 22.86 x 15.24  x 2.54
Weight (kg): 0.52

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