The need for this book has arisen from demand for a current text from our students in Petroleum Engineering at Imperial College and from post-experience Short Course students. It is, however, hoped that the material will also be of more general use to practising petroleum engineers and those wishing for aa introduction into the specialist literature. The book is arranged to provide both background and overview into many facets of petroleum engineering, particularly as practised in the offshore environments of North West Europe. The material is largely based on the authors' experience as teachers and consultants and is supplemented by worked problems where they are believed to enhance understanding. The authors would like to express their sincere thanks and appreciation to all the people who have helped in the preparation of this book by technical comment and discussion and by giving permission to reproduce material. In particular we would like to thank our present colleagues and students at Imperial College and at ERC Energy Resource Consultants Ltd. for their stimulating company, Jill and Janel for typing seemingly endless manuscripts; Dan Smith at Graham and Trotman Ltd. for his perseverence and optimism; and Lesley and Joan for believing that one day things would return to normality.
John S. Archer and Colin G. Wall 1986 ix Foreword Petroleum engineering has developed as an area of study only over the present century. It now provides the technical basis for the exploitation of petroleum fluids in subsurface sedimentary rock reservoirs.
`It presents a detailed and authoritative study, fully integrating theory and method throughout, to provide a unique source of reference for practising engineers and students alike.' Oil & Gas Australia, February 1987
1 Introduction.- 1.1 Petroleum Engineering: A creative technology.- 2 Reservoirs.- 2.1 Conditions for occurrence.- 2.2 Reservoir pressures.- 2.3 Fluid pressures in a hydrocarbon zone.- 2.4 Reservoir temperatures.- 2.5 Nature of reservoir fluids.- 2.6 Reservoir data - sources.- 3 Oilwell Drilling.- 3.1 Operations.- 3.2 Costs.- 3.3 Well completions and oilwell casing.- 3.4 Completion.- 3.5 Drilling fluid control.- 3.6 Rheology of well fluids (drilling muds and cements).- 3.7 Formation breakdown pressures and leak off tests.- 3.8 Data acquisition during drilling.- 3.9 Mud fluids for core recovery.- 3.10 Drilling optimization.- 3.11 Turbine versus conventional rotary.- 3.12 Special problems in drilling.- 3.13 Completion for production.- 4 Properties of Reservoir Fluids.- 4.1 Volumetric and phase behaviour of hydrocarbon systems.- 4.2 Applications to field systems.- 4.3 Compressibility.- 4.4 Measurement and prediction of reservoir fluid properties.- 4.5 Formation volume factors, B.- 4.6 Gas-oil ratios.- 4.7 Direct measurements - PVT analysis.- 4.8 Generalized correlations for liquid systems.- 5 Characteristics of Reservoir Rocks.- 5.1 Data sources and application.- 5.2 Coring decisions.- 5.3 Conventional and oriented coring.- 5.4 Coring mud systems.- 5.5 Core preservation.- 5.6 Well site controls.- 5.7 Core for special core analysis.- 5.8 Core-derived data.- 5.9 Geological studies.- 5.10 Routine core analysis.- 5.11 Porosity.- 5.12 Permeability.- 5.13 Relationships between porosity and permeability.- 6 Fluid Saturation: influence of wettability and capillary pressure.- 6.1 Equilibrium conditions.- 6.2 Laboratory measurements and relationship with reservoir systems.- 6.3 Pore size distribution.- 6.4 Capillary pressure hysteresis.- 6.5 Saturation distributions in reservoir intervals.- 6.6 Correlation of capillary pressure data from a given rock type.- 7 Relative permeability and multiphase flow in porous media.- 7.1 Definitions.- 7.2 Fractional flow.- 7.3 Effects of permeability variation.- 7.4 Wettability effects.- 7.5 Laboratory determination of relative permeability data.- 7.6 Residual saturations.- 7.7 In situ wettability control.- 7.8 Relative permeability from correlations.- 7.9 Validation of relative permeability data for use in displacement calculations.- 7.10 Pseudo-relative permeability in dynamic systems.- 7.11 Static pseudo-relative permeability functions.- 8 Representation of volumetric estimates and recoverable reserves.- 8.1 In-place volume.- 8.2 Areal extent of reservoirs.- 8.3 Thickness maps.- 8.4 Lithofacies representation.- 8.5 Isoporosity maps.- 8.6 Isocapacity maps.- 8.7 Hydrocarbon pore volume maps.- 8.8 Probabilistic estimation.- 8.9 Recovery factors and reserves.- 8.10 Distribution of equity in petroleum reservoirs.- 9 Radial Flow Analysis of Well Performance.- 9.1 Radial flow in a simple system.- 9.2 Development of the line source solution.- 9.3 Radial equations in practical units.- 9.4 Application of analytical solutions in well test methods.- 9.5 Pressure build-up analysis.- 9.6 Skin effect.- 9.7 Pressure drawdown and reservoir limit testing.- 9.8 Gas well testing.- 9.9 Well test procedures.- 9.10 Well testing and pressure analysis.- 10 Reservoir Performance Analysis.- 10.1 Recovery from gas reservoirs.- 10.2 Primary recovery in oil reservoirs.- 10.3 Gravity segregation and recovery efficiencies.- 10.4 Material balance for reservoirs with water encroachment or water injection.- 10.5 Accuracy of the gross material balance equation.- 11 Secondary Recovery and Pressure Maintenance.- 11.1 Displacement principles.- 11.2 Factors influencing secondary recovery and pressure maintenance schemes.- 11.3 Quality of injection fluids and disposal of brines.- 12 Improved Hydrocarbon Recovery.- 12.1 Targets.- 12.2 The influence of recovery mechanism on residual oil.- 12.3 Permeability improvement.- 12.4 Miscible displacement mechanisms.- 12.5 Miscible flood applications.- 12.6 Chemical flood processes.- 12.7 Heavy oil recovery.- 12.8 Thermal energy.- 12.9 Gas condensate reservoirs.- 12.10 Volatile oil reservoirs.- 13 Factors Influencing Production Operations.- 13.1 The production system.- 13.2 Reservoir behaviour in production engineering.- 13.3 Wellbore flow.- 13.4 Field process facilities.- 13.5 Natural gas processing.- 13.6 Crude oil processing.- 13.7 Heavy oil processing.- 13.8 Produced water treatment.- 13.9 Injection water treatment.- 13.10 Crude oil metering.- 14 Concepts in Reservoir Modelling and Application to Development Planning.- 14.1 Models.- 14.2 Equations of multiphase flow.- 14.3 Simulator classifications.- 14.4 Simulator application.- 14.5 Reservoir description in modelling.- 14.6 Application of reservoir models in field development.- Appendix 1 SPE Nomenclature and Units.- Units.- SPE Symbols Standard.- Symbols alphabetized by physical quantity.- Subscripts alphabetized by physical quantity.- Appendix 2 Solutions to Examples in Text.
Number Of Pages: 362
Published: May 1986
Publisher: Kluwer Academic Publishers Group
Country of Publication: GB
Dimensions (cm): 27.94 x 20.96
Weight (kg): 0.84