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Personality Judgment : A Realistic Approach to Person Perception - David C. Funder

Personality Judgment

A Realistic Approach to Person Perception

By: David C. Funder (Editor)

Hardcover Published: 1st July 1999
ISBN: 9780122699306
Number Of Pages: 238

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Accuracy in judging personality is important in clinical assessment, applied settings, and everyday life. Personality judgments are important in assessing job candidates, choosing friends, and determining who we can trust and rely on in our personal lives. Thus, the accuracy of those judgments is important to both individuals and organizations.
In examining personality judgment, this book takes a sweeping look at the field's history, assumptions, and current research findings. The book explores the construct of traits within the person-situation debate, defends the human judge in the face of the fundamental attribution error, and discusses research on four categories of moderators in judgment: the good judge, the judgeable target, the trait being judged, and the information on which the judgment is based.
Spanning two decades of accuracy research, this book makes clear not only how personality judgment has come to its current standing but also where it may move in the future.
* * Covers 20 years worth of historical, current and future trends in personality judgment.
* * Includes discussions of debatable issues related to accuracy and error. The author is well known for his recently developed theoy of the process by which one person may render an accurate judgment of the personality traits of another.

"Funder provides a timely, up-to-date, historical examination that is both concise and thorough... Funder presents an excellent exposition of the underlying philosophical issues surrounding accuracy judgements." --CHOICE

Prefacep. xiii
Acknowledgmentsp. xv
Approaching Accuracy
Curiosity and Its Fulfillmentp. 2
What Is Accuracy?p. 3
Chapter Organizationp. 4
The Importance of Accuracyp. 4
Practical Considerationsp. 4
Theoretical Considerationsp. 6
Intrinsic Considerationsp. 8
Three Propositionsp. 11
Social and Personality Psychology: Separation and Integrationp. 13
Reasons for the Separationp. 14
Differences between Social and Personality Psychologyp. 15
Renewed Research on Accuracyp. 23
Historical Rootsp. 23
The Realistic Accuracy Modelp. 24
The Agenda of Accuracy Research and Plan for the Bookp. 25
The Very Existence of Personality
Does Personality Exist?p. 27
Implications for Accuracy Researchp. 27
The Accuracy Issue and Common Sensep. 28
The Situational Onslaughtp. 28
The Vulnerability of Personality Psychologyp. 29
Consequences of the Situational Onslaughtp. 31
The Responsep. 32
The Size of the Effect of Personality on Behaviorp. 33
Empirical Assessments of Cross-Situational Consistencyp. 38
Redefinitions of Personalityp. 49
Do Personality Traits Explain Anything?p. 52
Personality Reaffirmedp. 54
Error and Accuracy in the Study of Personality Judgment
Evolution of Research on Accuracy and Errorp. 58
The Fall of Accuracyp. 58
The Shift to Processp. 59
The Rise of Errorp. 60
Shortcomings of Errorp. 63
Accuracy in Human Social Judgmentp. 73
Basic Evidence about Accuracyp. 74
The Fundamental Attribution Error Revisitedp. 76
Toward a Rapprochment between Error and Accuracyp. 78
Methodological and Philosophical Considerations
The Lessons of Cronbachp. 81
The Criterion Problemp. 83
Defining Accuracyp. 83
Three Approaches to Accuracyp. 84
Interjudge Agreementp. 89
Self-Other Agreementp. 89
Other-Other Agreementp. 91
The Calculation of Interjudge Agreementp. 92
Methods for Dealing with Stereotype Accuracyp. 95
Behavioral Predictionp. 106
Choosing Situations and Behaviorsp. 107
The Procedural Burdenp. 109
Personality and Behaviorp. 110
The Meaning of Predictionp. 110
General Issues of Design and Analysisp. 111
Experimental versus Correlational Designsp. 111
Data Analysisp. 113
Conclusionp. 115
The Process of Accurate Personality Judgment
The Realistic Accuracy Modelp. 117
Basic Assumptionsp. 118
How Accuracy Is Possiblep. 119
The Structure of RAMp. 120
Basic Structurep. 120
A Cognitive and Social Processp. 121
Formulaic Representationp. 122
Implications of the Realistic Accuracy Modelp. 123
Accuracy Is Difficultp. 124
The Origins of Moderatorsp. 124
The Four Steps to Accurate Personality Judgmentp. 125
The Order of the First Two Stepsp. 125
Relevancep. 125
Availabilityp. 129
Detectionp. 130
Utilizationp. 131
Multiple Cues and Multiple Traitsp. 134
The Goals of RAMp. 135
Moderators of Accuracy
The Good Judgep. 138
Theoretical Considerationsp. 139
Empirical Considerationsp. 142
The Good Targetp. 146
Gaps in the Link from Personality and Behaviorp. 147
Tying It All Together: Judgabilityp. 150
The Good Traitp. 152
Visibilityp. 152
Issues of Availability and Relevancep. 153
Evaluative Propertiesp. 154
Adaptive Importancep. 154
Good Informationp. 155
Quantityp. 155
Qualityp. 161
Interactions among Moderatorsp. 162
Judge X Trait: Expertisep. 162
Judge X Target: Relationshipp. 163
Judge X Information: Sensitivityp. 165
Trait X Target: Palpabilityp. 166
Trait X Information: Diagnosticityp. 167
Target X Information: Divulgencep. 167
Conclusionp. 168
Self-Knowledge
Self-Perception versus Other-Perceptionp. 169
Self-Perception Theoryp. 170
Difficulties of Self-Knowledgep. 170
Application of RAM to Self-Judgmentp. 177
Relevancep. 177
Availabilityp. 180
Detectionp. 182
Utilizationp. 185
Conclusionp. 186
Prospects for Improving Accuracy
Relevancep. 188
Improving Relevance in Real Lifep. 188
Improving Relevance in the Laboratoryp. 189
Availabilityp. 190
Detectionp. 191
Utilizationp. 192
Social versus Solitary Thoughtp. 193
Analytic and Intuitive Cognitionp. 193
The Judge's Situationp. 206
Referencesp. 209
Indexp. 231
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780122699306
ISBN-10: 0122699300
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 238
Published: 1st July 1999
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 23.34 x 15.75  x 1.68
Weight (kg): 0.48