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Periodontology : Color Atlas of Dental Hygiene - Herbert F Wolf

Periodontology

Color Atlas of Dental Hygiene

By: Herbert F Wolf, Thomas M Hassell, Gail L Aamodt (Foreword by), Susan J Jenkins (Foreword by)

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Dental hygiene professionals need the very best scientific and clinical knowledge at their fingertips to effectively assist in the prevention and treatment of periodontal disease. Periodontology puts the needs of hygienists center stage, providing a detailed and brilliantly illustrated reference for daily practice, and a wealth of knowledge to underpin successful diagnosis and treatment.

A firm grasp of the pathogenesis of periodontal disease is essential for the hygienist. This book clearly outlines the vital concepts in immunology, genetics and destruction and repair of periodontal tissues. The innovations and new scientific evidence in these fields are lucidly described and invoke new approaches to etiology, diagnosis and treatment.

The importance of links between oral health and general systemic health cannot be overestimated. Periodontology conclusively demonstrates the necessity for patient and clinician to keep these associations to the forefront of risk assessment and treatment.

The benefits of this integrated approach will be clearly seen in the focus on prevention of oral disease, a primary objective for all hygiene professionals. The book shows how the systemic considerations influence the combination of diagnostic, therapeutic, pharmacological and mechanical treatment strategies.

Frequently encountered disorders such as gingival recession and pathological changes in the peridontium are comprehensively documented and the range of prevention and treatment options set out. The inclusion of specialized subjects such as oral manifestations of HIV disease and the developments in its treatment serve to underline the key position of the hygienist in the wider health care team.

The exceptional color photos throughout will be an indispensable guide to clinicians and students, and indeed a welcome resource for educators. From diagnostic tools such as depictions of levels of bleeding right through to detailed instrumentation techniques, these photos and their concise accompanying text form an outstanding best-practice guide.

Concluding with the American Academy of Periodontology's Classification of Periodontal Disease, Periodontology will augment the knowledge and skills of dental hygienists, keeping practitioners up to date and providing students with the essential knowledge base for a career in periodontics.

The first-ever color atlas of dental hygiene and periodontology...Superb quality...The major strengths of this book are its wonderful illustrations and in-depth discussions and explanations of periodontal microbiology and immunology, instrumentation and hypersensitivity. I would recommend the purchase of this text by practicing dental hygienists and educators who wish to have access to excellent pictures and diagrams.--Canadian Journal of Dental HygieneThis well illustrated text on gingival pathology and treatement is well written. It is readable for the assistant and hygienist and possesses enough scientific depth to interest the most sophisticated periodontist.--Journal of the American Association of Forensic Dentists

Fundamentals
Introductionp. 1
Periodontal Diseasesp. 1
The Clinical Course of Untreated Periodontitisp. 4
Periodontitis-Concepts of Therapyp. 4
Structural Biologyp. 7
Gingivap. 8
Epithelial Attachmentp. 10
Connective Tissue Attachmentp. 12
Root Cementump. 14
Osseous Support Apparatusp. 16
Blood Supply of the Periodontiump. 18
Innervation of the Periodontiump. 19
The Coordinated Functions of the Periodontal Structuresp. 20
Etiology and Pathogenesisp. 21
Periodontitis-A Multifactorial Diseasep. 22
Microbiologyp. 23
Biofilm-Plaque Formation on Tooth and Root Surfacesp. 24
Supragingival Plaguep. 25
Natural Factors Favoring Plaque Retentionp. 26
Iatrogenic Factors Favoring Plaque Retentionp. 27
Subgingival Plaquep. 28
Bacterial Invasion Into Tissue?p. 29
Classification of Oral Microorganismsp. 30
Cell Walls of Gram-positive and Gram-negative Bacteriap. 31
Periodontitis-Classical or Opportunistic Infection?p. 32
Putative Periodontopathic Bacteriap. 33
Virulence Factorsp. 34
Virulence Transferp. 34
Marker Bacteria in Periodontitisp. 36
Pathogenic "Single Fighters" vs. Pathogenic Complexes?p. 37
Endotoxins-Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)p. 38
Interaction Between LPS and the Hostp. 38
Pathogenesis-Reactions and Defense Capabilities of the Hostp. 39
New Concepts of Pathogenesis - Therapeutic and Diagnostic Consequencesp. 40
Host Response-Mechanisms and "Participants"p. 41
Non-specific, Congenital Immunity-the First Line of Defensep. 42
Specific, Acquired Immunity-the Second Line of Defensep. 43
Components of the Immune System-Summaryp. 44
Interactions Between Non-specific and Specific Immunityp. 45
Regulatory Cell Surface Molecules: Markers, Receptorsp. 46
Cytokinesp. 47
Eicosanoids-Prostaglandins and Leukotrienesp. 49
Enzymatic Mechanisms-Matrix Metalloproteinasesp. 50
Risk for Periodontitis-the Susceptible Hostp. 51
Genetic Risk Factors-Diseases, Defects, Variationsp. 52
Alterable Risk Factors, Modifying Co-Factorsp. 54
Initial Inflammatory Reactionsp. 55
Histologyp. 56
Molecular Biologyp. 58
Destruction of Connective Tissuep. 60
Bone Resorptionp. 61
Pathogenesis-Clinical Features: From Gingivitis to Periodontitisp. 62
Cyclic Course of Periodontitisp. 63
Periodontal Infections and Systemic Diseasesp. 64
Etiology and Pathogenesis-Summaryp. 65
Indicesp. 67
Papilla Bleeding Index-PBIp. 70
Periodontal Indicesp. 71
Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs-CPITNp. 72
Periodontal Screening and Recording-PSRp. 73
Epidemiologyp. 74
Epidemiology of Gingivitisp. 74
Epidemiology of Periodontitisp. 75
WHO Studiesp. 76
Disease Entities and Diagnosis
Types of Plaque-associated Periodontal Diseasesp. 77
Gingivitis-Periodontitisp. 77
Classification of Periodontal Diseases-Nomenclaturep. 78
Gingivitisp. 79
Histopathologyp. 80
Clinical Symptomsp. 81
Mild Gingivitisp. 82
Moderate Gingivitisp. 83
Severe Gingivitisp. 84
Ulcerative Gingivitis/Periodontitisp. 85
Histopathologyp. 86
Clinical Symptoms-Bacteriologyp. 87
Ulcerative Gingivitis (NUG)p. 88
Ulcerative Periodontitis (NUP)p. 89
Ulcerative Gingivoperiodontitis-Therapyp. 90
Hormonally Modulated Gingivitisp. 91
Severe Pregnancy Gingivitis-Gravid Epulisp. 93
Pregnancy Gingivitis and Phenytoinp. 94
Periodontitisp. 95
Pathobiology-The Most Important Forms of Periodontitisp. 96
Type IIp. 96
Type III Bp. 96
Type III Ap. 97
Type IV Bp. 97
Pathomorphology-Clinical Degree of Severityp. 98
Pockets and Loss of Attachmentp. 99
Intra-alveolar Defects, Infrabony Pocketsp. 100
Furcation Involvementp. 102
Histopathologyp. 104
Additional Clinical and Radiographic Symptomsp. 105
Chronic Periodontitis-Mild to Moderatep. 108
Chronic Periodontitis-Severep. 110
Aggressive Periodontitis-Ethnic Contributions?p. 112
Aggressive Periodontitis-Acute Phasep. 114
Aggressive Periodontitis-Initial Stagep. 116
Prepubertal Periodontitis-PP (Aggressive Periodontitis)p. 118
Oral Pathologic Alterations of Gingiva and Periodontiump. 119
Primarily Gingival Alterations (Type I B)p. 120
Gingival and Periodontal Alterations (Type IV A/B)p. 120
Phenytoin-Induced Gingival Overgrowthp. 121
Dihydropyridine-induced Gingival Overgrowthp. 122
Cyclosporine-induced Gingival Overgrowthp. 123
Gingival Hyperplasia Following Combined Drug Therapiesp. 124
Benign Tumors-Epulisp. 125
Benign Tumors-Fibrosis, Exostosisp. 126
Malignant Tumorsp. 127
Gingivosis/Pemphigoidp. 128
Pemphigus vulgarisp. 128
Lichen planus: Reticular and Erosivep. 129
Leukoplakia, Pre-Cancerous Lesions-Oral Granulomatosisp. 130
Herpes-Herpetic Gingivostomatitisp. 131
Periodontitis with Systemic Diseases (Type IV)-Diabetes Type I and Type IIp. 132
Periodontitis Associated with Systemic Diseases (Type IV B) Down Syndrome, Trisomy 21, "Mongolism"p. 134
Pre-pubertal Periodontitis Associated with Systemic Disease Papillon-Lefevre Syndrome (Type IV B)p. 136
Papillon-Lefevre Syndrome-"An Exception for Every Rule"p. 138
HIV Infection-AIDSp. 139
HIV Disease-Epidemiologyp. 140
Classification and Clinical Course of HIV Diseasep. 141
Oral Manifestations of HIV Diseasep. 142
Bacterial Infections in HIVp. 143
Fungal Infectionsp. 144
Viral Infectionsp. 145
Neoplasmsp. 146
HIV-Associated Lesions of Unknown Etiologyp. 147
Invasion and Replication of the HI Virus-Hurdles for Systemic Medical Treatmentp. 148
Treatment of the HIV Patient-Pharmacologic Aspectsp. 149
HIV-Treatment of Opportunistic Infectionsp. 150
Infection Prevention and Post-exposure Prevention-The Dental Teamp. 150
Treatment of HIV-Periodontitisp. 151
Gingival Recessionp. 155
Fenestration and Dehiscence of the Alveolar Bonep. 156
Clinical Symptomsp. 157
Recession-Localizedp. 158
Recession-Generalizedp. 159
Clinical Situations Resembling Recessionp. 160
Recession-Diagnosisp. 161
Measurement of Recession (Jahnke)p. 162
Classification of Recession (Miller)p. 162
Consequences of Recessionp. 164
Data Collection-Diagnosis-Prognosisp. 165
Data Collection-Examinationsp. 166
General Patient Health Historyp. 167
Special Patient Health Historyp. 167
Classic Clinical Findingsp. 168
Pocket Probing-Probing Depth, Clinical Attachment Lossp. 169
Pocket Probing-Periodontal Probesp. 170
Pocket Probing Depths-Interpretation of the Measured Valuesp. 171
Furcation Involvement-Horizontal and Vertical Furcation Invasionp. 172
Tooth Mobility-Functional Analysisp. 174
Radiographyp. 176
Additional Diagnosis-Testsp. 178
Microbial Diagnosis-Test Methodsp. 179
Microbial Pocket Diagnosis-Dark Field and Phase Contrast Microscopyp. 180
Microbial Pocket Diagnosis-Culturesp. 181
New Diagnostic Tests-Evaluationp. 182
Molecular Biological Testsp. 183
Bacterial Probe Test-Practical IAI Pado Testp. 184
DNA/RNA Probe Tests-IAI Pado Test 4.5p. 185
Immunological Tests-Antigen-Antibody Reactionsp. 186
Enzymatic Bacterial Tests-BANA Testp. 187
Tests of the Host Response-Risksp. 188
Genetic Risk-Test for IL-1 Gene Polymorphismp. 189
IL-1 Gene Test-Technique, Evaluationp. 190
Risk Factor IL-1-positive Genotype-Additional Risk Factorsp. 191
Poor Oral Hygiene as a Risk Factor-Bleeding on Probing (BOP)p. 192
Periodontal Risk Assessment-Individual Risk Profilep. 193
Diagnostic Data Collection-Periodontal Charting, I and IIp. 194
Computer-Enhanced Charting-the Florida Probe Systemp. 195
Diagnosisp. 196
Prognosisp. 197
Prevention-Prophylaxisp. 198
Maintenance of Health and Prevention of Diseasep. 198
Definition: Prevention-Prophylaxisp. 198
Prevention of Gingivitis and Periodontitisp. 199
Therapy
Treatment of Inflammatory Periodontal Diseasesp. 201
Therapeutic Concepts and Techniquesp. 202
Therapy-Problemsp. 203
Periodontitis-Therapeutic Goals, Therapeutic Outcomesp. 204
Periodontal Wound Healingp. 205
Wound Healing and Regeneration-Possibilitiesp. 206
Treatment Planning-Sequence of Treatmentp. 208
Pre-phase-Systemic Health, Oral Hygiene
Causal, Antimicrobial, Anti-infectious
Surgical, Corrective
Preventive, Anti-infectious, "Life Long"
General Course of Therapy-Individual Planningp. 210
Systemic Pre-phasep. 211
Evaluation-Can the Patient be Safely Treated?p. 212
Bacteremia-Endocarditis Prophylaxisp. 213
Dental Procedures Carrying the Risk of Bacteremiap. 214
Diabetes mellitus (DM)-Risk Factor for Periodontitisp. 215
Smoking-An Alterable Risk Factorp. 216
Emergency Treatmentp. 217
Phase 1 Therapyp. 221
Case presentation-Motivation-Informationp. 222
Initial Treatment 1-Oral Hygiene by the Patientp. 223
Motivation-Gingival Bleedingp. 224
Plaque Disclosing Agentsp. 225
Toothbrushesp. 226
Toothbrushing Techniquep. 228
The Solo Technique-A Different Way to Brush Your Teethp. 229
Electric Toothbrushesp. 230
Interdental Hygienep. 231
Dentifricep. 234
Chemical Plaque Control-"Soft Chemo" Preventionp. 235
Irrigatorsp. 236
Oral Hygiene for Halitosis-Tongue Cleansingp. 237
Possibilities, Successes and Limitations of Oral Hygienep. 238
Initial Treatment 1-Creating Conditions that Enhance Oral Hygienep. 239
Supragingival Tooth Cleaning-Power-driven Instruments...p. 240
...and their Usep. 241
Supragingival Tooth Cleaning-Hand Instruments, Prophy Pastes...p. 242
...and their Usep. 243
Creation of Conditions that Enhance Oral Hygiene-Removal of Iatrogenic Irritantsp. 244
Correction of Iatrogenic Irritants-Bridge Ponticsp. 246
Removal of Natural Plaque-retentive Areas-Odontoplasty of Grooves, Depressions, Irregularitiesp. 247
Reduction of Natural Plaque-retentive Areas-Crowding: Morphologic Odontoplastyp. 248
Treatment of Plaque-elicited Gingivitisp. 249
Gingivitis Treatmentp. 252
Initial Treatment 2 "Closed", Subgingival Therapyp. 253
Definitionsp. 253
Non-Surgical, Anti-Infectious Therapy-Goals of Treatmentp. 254
Antimicrobial Therapy-Combating the Reservoirp. 255
Root Planing-With or without Curettage?p. 256
Closed Therapy-Indication, Instrumentationp. 257
Hand Instruments for Scaling and Root Planing-Curettesp. 258
Powered Instruments for Debridementp. 259
Gracey Curettes-Areas of Usep. 260
Hand Instruments for Special Problems-Curettesp. 262
Practical Scaling Technique with Gracey Curettes-Systematic Approachp. 263
Instrument Sharpeningp. 268
Manual Sharpening of Hand Instrumentsp. 269
Automated Sharpeningp. 270
Subgingival Debridement-Closed Root Cleaningp. 271
Closed Therapy in Quadrant 1...p. 276
...and in the Rest of the Dentitionp. 277
Limitations of Closed Therapyp. 278
Possibilities and Limitations of Closed Therapyp. 280
FMT-"Full Mouth Therapy"p. 281
FMT-Instrumental/Mechanical and...p. 282
...Pharmacologic Therapyp. 283
FMT-Radiographic Resultsp. 284
FMT-Statistical/Numerical Resultsp. 285
Medicationsp. 287
Anti-Infectious Supportive Therapy-Antibiotics in Periodontitis Therapyp. 287
Decision-Making Criteria-When to Use Antibiotics?p. 288
Antibiotics-Bacterial Sensitivity and Resistancep. 290
Systemic Versus Local (Topical) Antimicrobial Therapyp. 291
Local (Topical) Antimicrobial Therapy-"Controlled Release Drugs" (CRD)p. 292
Host Response/Reaction-Modulating Substancesp. 294
Phase 2 Therapy-Corrective Phase: Summary-Periodontal and Mucogingival Surgeryp. 295
Purposes and Goals of Periodontal Surgeryp. 296
Patient Selectionp. 297
Factors that Influence the Treatment Resultp. 298
Methods of Periodontal Surgery and their Indicationsp. 299
Principles of Various Treatment Modalities-Advantages and Disadvantagesp. 300
Pre-operative Treatment-Post-operative Carep. 302
Furcation Involvement-Furcation Treatmentp. 303
Therapeutic Possibilities for Various Casesp. 304
Furcation Involvement-Classificationsp. 306
Furcation Involvement, F2, in the Maxilla-Furcationplastyp. 307
Phase 3 Therapy Periodontal Maintenance Therapy-Recallp. 309
Recall in the Dental Practice-Recall Effectp. 310
Recall-Continuous Risk Managementp. 311
The "Recall Hour"-Practical Periodontal Maintenance Therapyp. 312
Dental Hygienist and Dentist-The "Preventive Team"p. 314
Auxiliary Personnel and Treatment Needsp. 314
Failures-Lack of Periodontal Maintenance Therapyp. 315
Negative Results of Therapyp. 316
Hypersensitive Dentinp. 318
Dental Implants-Implant Therapyp. 319
Determinative Diagnostic Criteriap. 320
Therapeutic Concepts-Therapeutic Resultsp. 321
Recall-Management of Implant Problemsp. 322
Geriatric Periodontology?: The Periodontium in the Elderlyp. 323
Age-related Changes-Influence Upon Treatment Planningp. 326
Classification of Periodontal Diseasesp. 327
Most Recent Re-Classification of Periodontal Diseases (1999)p. 327
Acknowledgments for Figuresp. 332
Referencesp. 333
Indexp. 334
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9781588904409
ISBN-10: 1588904407
Series: THIEME PUBLISHERS
Audience: General
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 339
Published: 12th July 2006
Publisher: Thieme Medical Publishers Inc
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 31.2 x 23.3  x 2.4
Weight (kg): 1.52