In the winter of 1760 Cherokee warriors attacked the South Carolina frontier, driving the settlements back over a hundred miles. Intrusive settlers, the failing deerskin trade, and the treachery of a British governor all contributed to the collapse of trust. Yet even the Cherokee leaders, notably the talented Atakullakulla, sought to re-establish a fragile middle ground between the two mutually incomprehensible cultures. This book shows how the very imperial commanders sent to destroy them negotiated a peace based on protection and consensus. Archibald Montgomery and James Grant were part of a wider circle of sympathetic middle-ranking British officers serving in America, and their initiative was within the spirit of long-evolving policy in London. But the price was high: Grant's high-handed actions embittered many Carolinians and - long before the Stamp Act - raised crucial constitutional questions.