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Patents, Citations, and Innovations : A Window on the Knowledge Economy - Adam B. Jaffe

Patents, Citations, and Innovations

A Window on the Knowledge Economy

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Innovation and technological change, long recognized as the main drivers of long-term economic growth, are elusive notions that are difficult to conceptualize and even harder to measure in a consistent, systematic way. This book demonstrates the usefulness of patents and citations data as a window on the process of technological change and as a powerful tool for research on the economics of innovation. Patent records contain a wealth of information, including the inventors' identity, location, and employer, as well as the technological field of the invention. Patents also contain citation references to previous patents, which allow one to trace links across inventions.The book lays out the conceptual foundations for such research and provides a range of interesting applications, such as examining the geographic pattern of knowledge spillovers and evaluating the impact of university and government patenting. It also describes statistical tools designed to handle methodological problems raised by the patent and citation processes. The book includes a CD with complete data on 3 million patents with more than 16 million citations and a range of author-devised measures of the importance, generality, and originality of patented innovations.

Industry Reviews

"A combination of data and theoretical reasoning leads Symeonidis to focus his study of the impacts of the change in collusive possibilities in Britain on their effect on market structure and non-price aspects of competition, rather than on prices per se. The evidence is compelling, and the insights are important. This book ought to change the way we analyze collusion."--Ariel Pakes, Professor of Economics, Harvard University "Laurence Kotlikoff's research has helped the economics profession to understand what really drives saving, bequests and other gifts. Serious students of these subjects will want to read and study the papers in this volume."--Martin Feldstein, President, National Bureau of Economic Research, and Professor of Economics, Harvard University "Since the time of Galileo, Kepler, and Francis Bacon, it has been recognized that scientific knowledge advances through careful measurement. Determining how scientific knowledge affects economic well-being has been a tougher nut to crack. This volume collects pioneering essays on the use of citations data to measure knowledge flows among scientists and engineers and the impact of those flows on economic growth."--F. M. Scherer, Professor Emeritus, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University "Jaffe, Trajtenberg, and their several co-authors have provided compelling evidence that patent data, combined with citation analysis, can be made to provide powerful insights into the performance of the knowledge economy. This book is, quite simply, required reading for anyone seeking empirical evidence relating to the determinants of economic growth."--Nathan Rosenberg, Professor of Economics (Emeritus), Stanford University "The studies here represent the best recent research using patents to measure inventive activity. The availability of this volume will inspire and assist future research on this important subject."--Martin Feldstein, President, National Bureau of Economic Research, and Professor of Economics, Harvard University "This book is both a major contribution to our understanding of the economic impact of the inventive and innovative activities that underlie economic progress and structural change, and a fitting tribute to the late Zvi Griliches by economists whom he trained. It reports on research based heavily on recent progress in computerizing data on science and technology, and should be read by scholars from all disciplines and all countries who share this endeavor."--Keith Pavitt, R. M. Phillips Professor of Science and Technology Policy, University of Sussex, England "Jaffe and Trajtenberg's use of the citation information on patent documents to indicate who gains from the knowledge creation of others, is a true breakthrough in an important measurement problem. It enables a scientific study of the causes and effects of research activity, and the numerous policy issues associated with the research and innovation process. This book both shows how to use this new data, and provides a diskette which enables us all to incorporate that data in our own future research."--Ariel Pakes, Professor of Economics, Harvard University

Forewordp. ix
Acknowledgmentsp. xi
The Data Diskp. xv
Introductionp. 1
Conceptual and Methodological Foundations
A Penny for Your Quotes: Patent Citations and the Value of Innovationsp. 25
University versus Corporate Patents: A Window on the Basicness of Inventionp. 51
How High Are the Giants' Shoulders: An Empirical Assessment of Knowledge Spillovers and Creative Destruction in a Model of Economic Growthp. 89
Geographic Localization of Knowledge Spillovers as Evidenced by Patent Citationsp. 155
The Geography of Knowledge Spillovers
Flows of Knowledge from Universities and Federal Laboratories: Modeling the Flow of Patent Citations over Time and across Institutional and Geographic Boundariesp. 179
International Knowledge Flows: Evidence from Patent Citationsp. 199
Policy-Motivated Evaluation of Institutions and Countries
Universities as a Source of Commercial Technology: A Detailed Analysis of University Patenting, 1965-1988p. 237
Evidence from Patents and Patent Citations on the Impact of NASA and Other Federal Labs on Commercial Innovationp. 261
Reinventing Public R&D: Patent Policy and the Commercialization of National Laboratory Technologiesp. 287
Innovation in Israel 1968-1997: A Comparative Analysis Using Patent Datap. 337
The Patents and Citations Data: A Close-Up
The Meaning of Patent Citations: Report on the NBER/Case-Western Reserve Survey of Patenteesp. 379
The NBER Patent-Citations Data File: Lessons, Insights, and Methodological Toolsp. 403
Sourcesp. 461
Indexp. 463
Table of Contents provided by Publisher. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780262600651
ISBN-10: 026260065X
Series: The MIT Press
Audience: Professional
For Ages: 18+ years old
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 496
Published: 1st March 2005
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 21.59 x 13.97  x 2.54
Weight (kg): 0.64