This book has been written for young Papua New Guineans, to give them an understanding of how their country has developed from the earliest settlements 50,000 years ago to the present. Without knowledge of the past, it is impossible to understand the present and prepare for the future. The book begins with an account of the first settlements, the arrival of the foreigners and the early years of colonial administration under British and German rule, followed by the period of Australian administration and the war in the Pacific. The post-war winds of change and the movements towards independence are clearly traced. Much of this material is based on the author's Short History of Papua New Guinea, but it has been revised and updated, and edited to make it more suitable for students. A distinguishing feature of this book is the detailed account of the 25 years since independence in 1975. Topics of national importance, such as domestic politics, relationships with other countries, the economy, social services, trade and investment, are described and analysed in detail to give young Papua New Guineans a real understanding and appreciation of the issues faced by their country in the 21st century.