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Paleontology of Vertebrates - Jean Chaline

Paleontology of Vertebrates

By: Jean Chaline, David Le Vay (Translator)

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Paleontology of Vertebrates is an introductory text for students in Earth Sciences. It offers the basic knowledge and describes the evolution of vertebrate groups, successfully applying the cladistic approach. The reader will learn how vertebrate paleontology can contribute to solve problems in various fields of geosciences, such as biostratigraphy, paleoenvironmental reconstructions and geophysical modes.

1 Concepts, Methods, and Techniques.- 1.1 Fossils and Fossilization.- 1.1.1 Fossils.- 1.1.2 Fossilization.- 1.1.3 Paleontological Deposits.- 1.1.4 Paleontological Techniques.- 1.2 Species and Classification of Populations.- 1.2.1 The Concept of Species.- 1.2.2 Paleontological and Biological Species.- 1.2.3 Biometrical Analyses.- 1.3 Analysis of Characteristics and Classifications.- 1.3.1 Classical Systematics.- 1.3.2 Evolutionary Systematics.- 1.3.3 Phylogenetic Systematics or Cladism.- 1.3.4 Phenetic Taxonomy.- 1.3.5 The Choice of a Phylogenetic Systematics and Evolutionary Mechanisms Analysis.- 1.4 The Search for a Mechanism of Evolutionary Change: Heterochrony.- 2 The Vertebrates.- 2.1 The Vertebrate Organization Plan.- 2.2 Origin of Vertebrates.- 2.2.1 The Chordata.- 2.2.2 Scenario and Phyletic Relationships among the Chordata.- 2.3 Diversity of Vertebrates.- 2.4 Temporal Distribution of Vertebrates.- 2.5 Spatial Distribution of Vertebrates.- 2.6 An Attempt at Vertebrate Classification.- 3 The Conquest of the Aquatic Environment.- 3.1 The First Vertebrates.- 3.2 Relationships of Agnatha.- 3.3 Myxines.- 3.4 Conodonts.- 3.5 Pteraspidomorpha.- 3.5.1 Characteristics.- 3.5.2 Heterostraci.- 3.5.3 Thelodontia.- 3.6 Lampreys (Petromyzontidae) and Cephalaspidomorpha.- 3.6.1 Characteristics.- 3.6.2 Lampreys.- 3.6.3 Osteostraci.- 3.6.4 Anaspidae.- 3.6.5 Galeaspidae.- 3.6.6 Modes of Life.- 3.7 Gnathostomata.- 3.7.1 Jaws and Fins.- 3.7.2 Diversity and Phylogenetic Relationships of the First Gnathostomata.- 3.7.3 Placoderms.- 3.7.4 Chondrichthyes.- 3.8 Teleostomi.- 3.8.1 Characteristics and Phylogenetic Relationships.- 3.8.2 Acanthodia.- 3.8.3 Osteichthyes.- 4 From the Aquatic to the Terrestrial Environment: The Tetrapoda.- 4.1 Problems of Adaptation.- 4.1.1 Respiration.- 4.1.2 Thermoregulation.- 4.1.3 Locomotion.- 4.1.4 Reproduction.- 4.2 Adaptations.- 4.2.1 Skeleton.- 4.2.2 Reproduction.- 4.3 Paleontological History of the First Tetrapoda.- 4.3.1 Ichthyostegidae.- 4.3.2 Loxommatidae and Crassigyrinus.- 4.3.3 Temnospondyli.- 4.3.4 Lissamphibia.- 4.3.5 Primitive Amniota or "Anthracosauria".- 4.4 Developmental Heterochronies.- 4.4.1 Neoteny.- 4.4.2 Progenesis.- 5 The Conquest of the Terrestrial Environment: The Amniota.- 5.1 Characteristics and Phylogenetic Relationships.- 5.1.1 Reproduction.- 5.1.2 Thermoregulation.- 5.1.3 Phylogenetic Relationships.- 5.1.4 Cranial Structures.- 5.2 The First Amniota.- 5.2.1 Captorhinomorphs.- 5.2.2 Procolophonia and Others.- 5.3 Turtles.- 5.4 Lepidosauromorpha.- 5.4.1 Younginiformes.- 5.4.2 Sphenodontia.- 5.4.3 Lizards.- 5.4.4 Snakes.- 5.5 Archosauromorpha.- 5.5.1 Rhynchosauria.- 5.5.2 Archosauria.- 5.5.3 Dinosaurs.- 5.5.4 Birds.- 5.5.5 Pterosaurs.- 5.5.6 Diapsids incertae sedis: Kuehneosaurids.- 5.5.7 Crocodiles.- 5.6 Ichthyosaurs.- 5.7 Plesiosaurs.- 5.8 Placodontia.- 6 The Conquest of the Aerial Environment.- 6.1 The Constraints of Flight.- 6.2 Pterosaurs.- 6.3 Birds.- 6.3.1 Archaeopteryx.- 6.3.2 Landmarks in the History of the Birds.- 6.4 Chiroptera.- 7 The Radiations of Mammals.- 7.1 From Pelycosaurs to Mammals.- 7.1.1 Pelycosaurs.- 7.1.2 Therapsidae.- 7.2 Acquisition of Mammalian Characteristics.- 7.2.1 From the Therapsid to Mammalian Articulation.- 7.2.2 Structure of the Middle Ear in Mammals.- 7.2.3 Other Mammalian Characteristics.- 7.3 Mesozoic Mammals.- 7.3.1 Prototheria.- 7.3.2 Theria.- 7.4 Marsupials.- 7.5 Placentals.- 7.5.1 Mesozoic Placentals.- 7.5.2 Radiations of the Placentals.- 7.5.3 Insectivora and Dermoptera.- 7.5.4 Pantodonta.- 7.5.5 Taeniodonta and Amblypoda.- 7.5.6 Condylarthra.- 7.5.7 Ungulata of South America.- 7.5.8 Perissodactyli.- 7.5.9 Artiodactyli.- 7.5.10 Proboscidea.- 7.5.11 Carnivora.- 7.5.12 Cetacea.- 7.5.13 Xenarthra.- 7.5.14 Lagomorpha.- 7.5.15 Rodents.- 8 The Primates and Hominization.- 8.1 Characteristics and Phylogenetic Relationships.- 8.1.1 Characteristics.- 8.1.2 Phylogenetic Relationships.- 8.2 Strepsirhini.- 8.2.1 Plesiadapiformes, Adapiformes and Omomyids.- 8.3 Haplorhini.- 8.3.1 Tarsids.- 8.3.2 Platyrrhini.- 8.3.3 Catarrhini.- 8.4 Relationships Between Pongidae and Hominidae.- 8.4.1 Comparisons and Consequences.- 8.4.2 Australopithecids.- 8.4.3 The Human Lineage.- 8.4.4 A New Explanatory Theory.- 9 From Fossils to Explanatory Theories.- 9.1 Paleontology, the Science of Time.- 9.2 The Lessons of the Fossils.- 9.3 From Fossils to Theories.- 9.4 Towards a Unifying Theory of Evolution.- 10 Applied Paleontology.- 10.1 Biostratigraphy.- 10.1.1 Principles.- 10.1.2 High-Resolution Biostratigraphy.- 10.1.3 Biostratigraphies of Vertebrates.- 10.2 Reconstruction of Paleoenvironments and Climates.- 10.2.1 The "Grande Coupure" oligocene.- 10.2.2 Quaternary Environments and Climates.- 10.3 Contributions of Paleontology to Global Tectonics.- 10.3.1 Influence of Paleogeography on Evolution.- 10.3.2 Paleontology as a Test of Geodynamic models.- References.

ISBN: 9783540517559
ISBN-10: 3540517553
Audience: General
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 186
Publisher: Springer-Verlag Berlin and Heidelberg Gmbh & Co. Kg
Country of Publication: DE
Dimensions (cm): 23.39 x 15.6  x 1.09
Weight (kg): 0.29