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Organic Semiconductors in Sensor Applications : Springer Series in Materials Science - Daniel A. Bernards

Organic Semiconductors in Sensor Applications

Springer Series in Materials Science

By: Daniel A. Bernards (Editor), Roisin M. Owens (Editor), George G. Malliaras (Editor)

Hardcover Published: 25th February 2008
ISBN: 9783540763130
Number Of Pages: 290

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Organic semiconductors offer unique characteristics which have prompted the application of organic semiconductors and their devices in physical, chemical, and biological sensors. This book covers this emerging field by discussing both optically- and electrically-based sensor concepts. Novel transducers based on organic light-emitting diodes and organic thin-film transistors, as well as systems-on-a-chip architectures are presented. Functionalization techniques are also outlined.

Water Soluble Poly(fluorene) Homopolymers and Copolymers for Chemical and Biological Sensorsp. 1
Introductionp. 1
General Structures and Propertiesp. 2
Design, Synthesis, and Structural Propertiesp. 2
Optical Propertiesp. 6
Signal Transduction Mechanisms in Sensorsp. 9
Chemo- and Biosensor Applicationsp. 15
DNA Sensorsp. 15
RNA Sensorsp. 23
Protein Detectionp. 25
Glucose Sensorsp. 28
Detection of Other Small Moleculesp. 30
Heterogeneous Platformsp. 31
Summary and Outlookp. 32
Referencesp. 34
Polyelectrolyte-Based Fluorescent Sensorsp. 39
General Introductionp. 39
Amplified Fluorescence Quenchingp. 39
General Sensor Schemes: Bioassays Based on Quench/Unquenchp. 43
Enzyme Activity Assaysp. 44
Assay Formats and Typesp. 44
Proteolytic Enzyme Assays Using Conjugated Polyelectrolytesp. 45
Phospholipase Assays Using Conjugated Polyelectrolytesp. 46
Assays Based on "Frustrated Super-Quenching"p. 49
Supramolecular Self-Assembly and Scaffold Disruption/Destruction Assaysp. 50
Cyanines and Supra-Molecular Self-Assemblyp. 50
Cyanine Chemistryp. 51
Glycosidases and Scaffold Disruption/Destruction Assayp. 52
Conjugated Polyelectrolyte Surface-Grafted Colloidsp. 54
Summary and Conclusionsp. 57
Referencesp. 58
Structurally Integrated Photoluminescent Chemical and Biological Sensors: An Organic Light-Emitting Diode-Based Platformp. 61
Introductionp. 61
Photoluminescence-Based Sensorsp. 61
Structurally Integrated OLED/Sensing Component Modulesp. 62
Structural Integration of the OLED Array/Sensing Filmp. 63
Single Analyte Monitoringp. 64
Gas-Phase and Dissolved Oxygenp. 64
Enhanced Photoluminescence of Oxygen-Sensing Films Through Doping with Titania Particles [70]p. 69
Glucosep. 71
Hydrazine (N[subscript 2]H[subscript 4])p. 77
Anthrax Lethal Factor (LF)p. 79
Advanced Sensor Arraysp. 81
OLED-Based Multiple Analyte Sensing Platformp. 81
Extended Structural Integration: OLED/Sensing Component/Photodetector Integrationp. 87
Future Directionsp. 90
Improved OLEDsp. 90
Sensor Microarraysp. 91
Autonomous Field-Deployable Sensors for Biological Agentsp. 91
Summary and Concluding Remarksp. 92
Referencesp. 92
Lab-on-a-Chip Devices with Organic Semiconductor-Based Optical Detectionp. 97
Introductionp. 97
Microfluidics and Lab-on-a-Chipp. 97
Detection Problem at the Microscalep. 102
Fabricationp. 103
Microfluidic Systemsp. 103
Organic Semiconductor-Based Light Sources and Detectorsp. 108
Towards Mass Manufacturep. 112
Functional Optical Componentsp. 116
OLED Light Sources for Microchip Analysisp. 116
Organic Photodetectors for Chemiluminescence Assaysp. 118
Optical Filters for Head-On Fluorescence Detectionp. 123
Applicationsp. 126
Microalbuminuria Determination On-Chipp. 127
Chemiluminescence-Based Diagnostic Testsp. 131
Towards Portable and Disposable Diagnostic Devicesp. 135
Conclusions and Outlookp. 137
Referencesp. 139
Solid-State Chemosensitive Organic Devices for Vapor-Phase Detectionp. 141
Introductionp. 141
Chemical Sensors and Electronic Nosesp. 141
Survey of State-of-the-Art Vapor-Phase Solid-State Chemosensing Organic Devicesp. 142
Electrical Odor Sensorsp. 144
Optical Odor Sensorp. 152
Summaryp. 160
Recent Advancesp. 160
Chemosensing Lasing Actionp. 160
Chemical Sensing Heterojunction Photoconductorsp. 172
Referencesp. 180
Detection of Chemical and Physical Parameters by Means of Organic Field-Effect Transistorsp. 185
Introductionp. 185
An Overview of Organic Field-Effect Sensorsp. 186
(Bio)chemosensing in Solutionp. 188
Ion Sensitive Organic Field-Effect Transistors (ISOFETs)p. 188
Strain and Pressure Sensorsp. 193
State of the Art of Mechanical Sensors Including OFETsp. 194
Flexible Structures for Mechanical Sensorsp. 199
Design and Technology of Organic Field-Effect Sensorsp. 202
Applications for Organic Field-Effect Sensorsp. 205
Artificial Sense of Touchp. 206
E-Textilesp. 208
Conclusionsp. 210
Referencesp. 210
Performance Requirements and Mechanistic Analysis of Organic Transistor-Based Phosphonate Gas Sensorsp. 213
Overview of Electronic Sensors for Chemical Vapors and Warfare Agentsp. 213
Introduction and Response Targetsp. 213
Selectivityp. 214
Stabilityp. 215
Response Timep. 216
Power Consumption and Form Factorp. 216
Organic Semiconductor Transistor Sensorsp. 216
Organic Electronics and Chemical Sensingp. 216
Electronic Transduction Mechanismp. 218
Testing Environments for Prototype Sensing Elementsp. 219
Test Chambersp. 219
Device Packagingp. 225
Electrical Test Proceduresp. 225
Generation of Saturation Curves at a Fixed Time Intervalp. 225
Generation of Transfer Curves at a Fixed Time Intervalp. 226
Pulsed Vs. Nonpulsed Measurementsp. 227
Erasing Electrical Historyp. 227
Responses of Functionalized Organic Semiconductors to DMMPp. 228
Responses of Functionalized Hole-Transporting Oligomers, Including Blends and Surface Modificationsp. 229
Responses of Electron-Transporting Films, Including Hydroxylated Island Overlayersp. 232
Data Analysisp. 234
Sensitivity of an OFET Sensor: Gate Voltage Dependence and Contributions of Mobility and Threshold Voltage Changesp. 234
Self-Consistent Equation Based on Simple Saturation Currentp. 235
Contributions of Gate Dependent Mobility and Contact Resistancep. 238
Sensing Mechanisms and OFET Modelsp. 239
Summary and Outlookp. 242
Referencesp. 243
Electrochemical Transistors for Applications in Chemical and Biological Sensingp. 245
Introductionp. 245
Sensors Based on Electrochemical Transistorsp. 247
Sensor Mechanismsp. 248
Enzyme-Based Sensingp. 251
Antibody-Antigen-Based Sensingp. 255
DNA-Based Sensingp. 257
Recent advances in Design and Fabrication of Electrochemical Transistorsp. 258
Summary and Future Directionsp. 260
Referencesp. 261
PEDOT: PSS-Based Electrochemical Transistors for Ion-to-Electron Transduction and Sensor Signal Amplificationp. 263
The PEDOT:PSS-Based Electrochemical Organic Thin Film Transistorp. 263
Electrochemical Transistors: A Brief Introduction and a Short Historical Reviewp. 263
The Operation Principle of the PEDOT:PSS-Based Electrochemical Organic Thin Film Transistorp. 264
Design Criteria and Device Operation Parametersp. 265
Manufacturing Techniquesp. 267
The PEDOT:PSS OECT as an Ion-to-Electron Transducerp. 269
Different Sensor Principles of the PEDOT:PSS Electrochemical Transistorp. 269
Humidity Sensingp. 269
Ion-Selective Membranesp. 270
The PEDOT:PSS Electrochemical transistor in logic and amplification circuitsp. 272
Introduction to Electrochemical Circuits and Systemsp. 272
Electrochemical Digital Circuitsp. 273
Electrochemical Analog Circuitsp. 273
The Differential Amplifierp. 276
Zero Detectorp. 277
Oscillatorsp. 277
Outlookp. 278
Referencesp. 279
Indexp. 281
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9783540763130
ISBN-10: 3540763139
Series: Springer Series in Materials Science
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 290
Published: 25th February 2008
Publisher: Springer-Verlag Berlin and Heidelberg Gmbh & Co. Kg
Country of Publication: DE
Dimensions (cm): 23.5 x 15.5  x 1.27
Weight (kg): 0.54