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Organic Metal and Metalloid Species in the Environment : Analysis, Distribution, Processes and Toxicological Evaluation - Alfred V Hirner

Organic Metal and Metalloid Species in the Environment

Analysis, Distribution, Processes and Toxicological Evaluation

By: Alfred V Hirner (Editor), Hendrik Emons (Editor)

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Published: 1st March 2004
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Subsequent to the profiling of organometal(loid) compounds in important biogeogenic and anthropogenic deposits, the importance of this class of compounds for human health are evaluated by the analysis of both physicochemical and biological formation, distribution and transformation processes. Multidisciplinary articles written by experts from disciplines as diverse as biogeochemistry, ecotoxicology, analytical chemistry, microbiology and genetics estimate the global levels of biogeogenic and anthropogenic emissions of organometal(loid) compounds, and thus obtain an insight to processes which influence the genesis, as well as the distribution and stability of organometal(loid) species and their interaction with each other and other matrix compounds. The authors evaluate various environmentally relevant sources from a toxicological point of view, in order to identify potential "hot spots" of organometal(loid)s, which can negatively influence ecosystems and human health.

Organometallic compounds in the environment: An overviewp. 1
General pointsp. 1
Biomethylationp. 5
Arsenicp. 6
Antimonyp. 8
Mercuryp. 8
Microbial demethylation/dealkylationp. 11
Literaturep. 12
Advances in analytical methods for speciation of trace elements in the environmentp. 17
Introductionp. 17
Organometall(oid) Species in the Environmentp. 18
Hyphenated Techniques in Speciation Analysisp. 18
Advances in GC/ICP-MSp. 20
Advances in Gas Chromatography prior to ICP-MSp. 21
ICP-MS Detection in Gas Chromatographyp. 22
GC/ICP-MS Studies Using Stable Isotopesp. 24
Advances in Sample Preparationp. 27
Multidimensional LC with ICP-MS Detectionp. 29
The Coupling HPLC/ICP-MSp. 29
Electrospray Mass Spectrometry for the Species Identificationp. 30
Multidimensional Analytical Strategy for the Identification of Organoarsenic Species in Marine Biotap. 34
Conclusionsp. 35
Literaturep. 35
Analytical strategies for arsenic speciation in environmental and biological samplesp. 41
Arsenic species in the environment and in biological samplesp. 41
Analytical strategiesp. 45
Sample preparationp. 45
Separation methodsp. 47
Identificationp. 49
Quantificationp. 51
Analytical aspects of selected arsenic speciation studiesp. 52
Gas chromatography coupled to MS or ICP-MSp. 52
Liquid chromatography coupled to ESI-MS and ICP-MSp. 57
Conclusionsp. 67
Acknowledgementsp. 68
Literaturep. 68
Occurrence and speciation of arsenic, antimony and tin in specimens used for environmental biomonitoring of limnic ecosystemsp. 71
Environmental biomonitoringp. 71
Occurrence of As, Sb and Sn in freshwater ecosystemsp. 72
Arsenicp. 73
Antimonyp. 74
Tinp. 75
Speciation analysis of As, Sb and Sn in limnic samplesp. 76
Arsenic speciesp. 80
Antimony speciesp. 82
Tin speciesp. 84
Quality assurancep. 84
Speciation of As, Sb, Sn in limnic bioindicators--first resultsp. 86
Arsenicp. 86
Antimonyp. 88
Tinp. 88
Outlook and future challengesp. 91
Acknowledgmentp. 92
Literaturep. 92
Methylated metal(loid) species in biological waste treatmentp. 97
Introductionp. 97
Biological waste treatmentp. 98
Experimentalp. 100
Derivatisation of ionic speciesp. 100
Sampling of gaseous speciesp. 102
Metal analysisp. 102
Set-up of garden composting experimentsp. 103
Results and discussionp. 103
Ionic organometal(loid) species in compost from waste treatment facilitiesp. 103
Metal(loid) species in different aged compostp. 105
Biomethylation in garden compostp. 108
Conclusionsp. 110
Volatile mercury species in environmental gases and biological samplesp. 113
Introductionp. 113
Analytical methodsp. 114
Instrumental techniquesp. 114
Resultsp. 119
Environmental samplesp. 119
Biological samplesp. 122
Validation of datap. 127
Discussionp. 129
Dimethylmercury in environmental gasesp. 129
Mercury species generated in metabolic processesp. 130
Conclusionsp. 131
Acknowledgementsp. 132
Literaturep. 132
Biovolatilisation of metal(loid)s by microorganismsp. 137
Introductionp. 137
Analytical setup for identifying and quantifying metal(loid)-organic derivativesp. 138
Volatile metal(loid) compounds in the environmentp. 138
Towards an understanding of metal(loid) biotransformation processesp. 140
Direct monitoring of volatile metal(loid) derivatives in the environmentp. 140
Monitoring of metal(loid) volatilisation by microbial populations enriched from original environmentsp. 142
Monitoring of metal(loid) volatilisation by isolated strainsp. 147
Conclusion and perspectivesp. 149
Literaturep. 150
The Effect of Phosphate on the Bioaccumulation and Biotransformation of Arsenic(V) by the Marine Alga Fucus gardnerip. 155
Introductionp. 155
Experimentalp. 156
Reagents and Chemicalsp. 156
Medium and Antibioticsp. 156
Fucus gardneri Samplesp. 157
Sample Preparation and Analysisp. 157
Results and discussionp. 158
Acknowledgmentsp. 165
Literaturep. 165
Molecular modeling studies of specific interactions between organometallic compounds and DNAp. 167
Introductionp. 167
Theory and methodsp. 167
Extensible Systematic Force Field (ESFF)p. 168
Ligand aligning algorithmp. 172
Results and discussionp. 175
Conclusionsp. 180
Future workp. 180
Literaturep. 180
Organometal(loid) compounds associated with human metabolismp. 181
Introductionp. 181
Experimentalp. 183
Ingestion experimentp. 183
Analytical methodsp. 184
Resultsp. 185
Gaseous samplesp. 185
Salivap. 186
Urinep. 187
Bloodp. 192
Faecesp. 196
Discussionp. 198
Conclusionsp. 201
Acknowledgementsp. 201
Literaturep. 201
Genotoxicity of organometallic speciesp. 205
Human exposure to organometallic speciesp. 205
Genotoxicity of organometallic speciesp. 206
Genotoxic effects of organomercury compoundsp. 206
Genotoxic effects of organoarsenic compoundsp. 208
Genotoxic effects of organotin compoundsp. 211
In vitro genotoxicity of different organometal(loid) compounds in CHO cellsp. 214
Summaryp. 215
Literaturep. 216
Current aspects on the genotoxicity of arsenite and its methylated metabolites: Oxidative stress and interactions with the cellular response to DNA damagep. 221
Introductionp. 221
Oxidative DNA damagep. 223
DNA repair systems and interactions by arsenitep. 225
Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation as sensitive intracellular target for arsenitep. 226
Conclusions and perspectivesp. 228
Acknowledgementsp. 230
Literaturep. 230
Cytogenetic investigations in employees from waste industriesp. 235
Introductionp. 235
Materials and methodsp. 236
Subjectsp. 236
Smoking Statusp. 237
Cytogenetic methodsp. 238
Resultsp. 239
Discussionp. 243
Acknowledgementsp. 244
Literaturep. 244
Neurotoxicity of metalsp. 247
Introductionp. 247
Mercuryp. 248
Leadp. 251
Literaturep. 255
Actions of metals on membrane channels, calcium homeostasis and synaptic plasticityp. 259
Relevance of metalsp. 259
Leadp. 259
Aluminiump. 261
Zincp. 262
Mercuryp. 262
Interference of metals with cell functionsp. 263
Metals on Membrane Channelsp. 264
Other channels involved in lead toxicityp. 268
Metals and calcium homeostasisp. 269
Lead and aluminium actions on synaptic plasticityp. 269
Relevance of the datap. 270
General Implicationsp. 271
Literaturep. 272
Effects of organometal(loid) compounds on neuronal ion channels: possible sites for neurotoxicityp. 283
Toxicity of organometal(loid)sp. 283
Neurotoxic aspects of organometal(loid)sp. 283
Neurotoxicity of inorganic and organic arsenicalsp. 285
Target structures of neurotoxicityp. 286
Function of ion channels in the nervous systemp. 287
Prediction of neurotoxic potency of hazardous substances with an in vivo expression system: Xenopus laevis oocytesp. 288
The use of Xenopus laevis oocytes for electrophysiological studies of ion channelsp. 288
Testing the Xenopus expression system for neurotoxicological investigations: Effects of lead on voltage- and transmitter-operated ion channelsp. 291
Effects of arsenicals on transmitter-operated ion channelsp. 293
Transmembraneous ion currents through the different glutamate-operated ion channelsp. 293
Electrophysiological techniquesp. 294
Reproducibility of the receptor-mediated ion currents (control experiments)p. 295
Application of the arsenicalsp. 296
Effects of inorganic arsenitep. 297
Effects of monomethylarsonic acid (MeAsO(OH)[subscript 2])p. 299
Effects of dimethylarsinic acid (Me[subscript 2]AsOOH)p. 301
Effects of arsenicals on voltage-operated potassium channelsp. 303
Transmembraneous ion currents through different voltage-operated potassium channelsp. 304
Electrophysiological techniquesp. 304
Neuronal ion channels as targets for organic arsenicalsp. 306
Perspectives and limitation of Xenopus occytesp. 307
Effects of arsenicals on glutamate-operated ion channelsp. 307
Effects of arsenicals on voltage-operated potassium channelsp. 309
Significance in arsenic poisoningp. 310
Literaturep. 310
Panel discussion: Analytical aspects Discussion Session on "Speciation Analysis of Environmental Samples"p. 317
Panel discussion: Toxicological Aspects Discussion Session on "Toxicological Aspects of Alkylated Metal(loid) Species"p. 319
Resumep. 323
Subject Indexp. 325
Table of Contents provided by Rittenhouse. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9783540208297
ISBN-10: 3540208291
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 328
Published: 1st March 2004
Publisher: Springer-Verlag Berlin and Heidelberg Gmbh & Co. Kg
Country of Publication: DE
Dimensions (cm): 23.5 x 15.2  x 2.54
Weight (kg): 0.68