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Organic Light-Emitting Devices : A Survey - Joseph Shinar

Organic Light-Emitting Devices

A Survey

By: Joseph Shinar (Editor)

Hardcover Published: 31st October 2003
ISBN: 9780387953434
Number Of Pages: 309

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Although it has long been possible to make organic materials emit light, it has only recently become possible to do so at the level and with the efficiency and control necessary to make the materials a useful basis for illumination or displays. The early electroluminescent devices provided reasonably bright light, but required high operating voltages, produced only a narrow range of colors, and had severely limited lifetimes. Recent developments, however, make it possible to manufacture organic light-emitting devices that are thin, bright, efficient, and stable and that produce a broad range of colors. This book surveys the current status of the field. It begins with an overview of the physics and chemistry of organic light emitting devices by J. Shinar and V. Savvateev. Subsequenbt chapters discuss the design of molecular materials for high performance devices (C. Adachi and T. Tsutsui) and chemical degradation and physical aging (K. Higginson, D. L. Thomsen, B. Yang, and F. Papadimitrakopoulos). A. Dodabalapur describes microcavity OLEDs, and Y. Shi, J. Liu, and Y. Yang discuss polymer morphology and device performance. Various aspects of devices based on polyparaphenylene vinylenes are discussed in chapters by N.C. Greenham and R.H. Friend and by H. Chayet, V. Savvateeyv, D. Davidov and R. Neumann. Chapters by S. Tasch, W. Graupner, and G. Leising and by Y. Z. Wang, D. Gebler, and A. J. Epstein describe OLEDs based on poly(paraphenylene) and poly(pyridine), respectively. The book concludes with a chapter on polyfluorene-based devices, which show great promise for producing light in all colors from blue to red.

Prefacep. v
Contributorsp. xv
Introduction to Organic Light-Emitting Devicesp. 1
Introductionp. 1
Basic Electronic Structure and Dynamics of [pi]-Conjugated Materialsp. 5
Basic Structure of OLEDsp. 9
OLED Fabrication Proceduresp. 10
Thermal Vacuum Evaporationp. 10
Wet-Coating Techniquesp. 11
Materials for OLEDs & PLEDsp. 12
Anode Materials and HTLs or Buffersp. 12
Small Electron-Transporting and Emitting Moleculesp. 17
Small Molecular Guest Dye Emittersp. 18
White OLEDsp. 18
Phosphorescent Small Molecules & Electrophosphorescent OLEDsp. 19
Fluorescent Polymersp. 19
Cathode & Organic/Cathode Buffer Materialsp. 21
Basic Operation of OLEDsp. 22
Carrier Transport in OLEDsp. 23
Polaron vs Disorder Models for Carrier Hoppingp. 24
Long-Range Correlationsp. 25
Carrier Injectionp. 26
Space-Charge Limited Versus Injection-Limited Current Mechanismsp. 28
The Efficiency of OLEDsp. 29
Degradation Mechanismsp. 31
Outlook for OLEDsp. 33
Referencesp. 34
Molecular LED: Design Concept of Molecular Materials for High-Performance OLEDp. 43
Introductionp. 43
OLED Development from the 1960s to the 1980sp. 43
Working Mechanisms of OLEDp. 45
Charge Carrier Injection and Transportp. 46
Carrier Recombination and Emission Processp. 50
Estimation of External and Internal Quantum Efficiencyp. 50
Design of Multilayer Structuresp. 53
Molecular Materials for OLEDp. 55
Hole-Transport Materialp. 55
Electron-Transport Materialp. 58
Emitter Materialp. 60
Dopant Materialp. 60
Molecular Tuning for High EL Efficiencyp. 62
Molecular Tuning for a High EL Durable OLEDp. 63
Future Possibilities of OLEDp. 64
Conclusionp. 65
Referencesp. 65
Chemical Degradation and Physical Aging of Aluminum(III) 8-Hydroxyquinoline: Implications for Organic Light-Emitting Diodes and Materials Designp. 71
Introductionp. 71
Chemical Stability of OLED Materialsp. 72
Thermal Hydrolysis of Alq[subscript 3]p. 72
Electrochemical Degradation of Alq[subscript 3] and Hqp. 78
Morphological Stability of Organic Glasses in LEDsp. 85
Crystallization of Alq[subscript 3]p. 86
Guidelines for Amorphous Materials Selectionp. 89
Crystallization and Aging of AlMq[subscript 3] and Alq[subscript 3]/AlMq[subscript 3] blendsp. 91
The Effect of Aging Processes on OLED Performancep. 95
Referencesp. 98
Organic Microcavity Light-Emitting Diodesp. 103
Introductionp. 103
Types of Microcavitiesp. 104
Planar Microcavity LEDsp. 106
Single Mode and Multimode Planar Microcavity LEDsp. 110
Intensity and Angular Dependence in Planar Microcavitiesp. 114
Materials for Organic Microcavity LED Displaysp. 121
Summaryp. 123
Referencesp. 124
Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Poly(p-phenylenevinylene) and Its Derivativesp. 127
Introductionp. 127
The Electronic Structure of PPVp. 128
Synthesis of PPV and Derivativesp. 132
Single-Layer LEDsp. 134
Multiple-Layer Polymer LEDsp. 138
Transport and Recombination in Polymer LEDsp. 141
Optical Properties of Polymer LEDsp. 143
Novel LED Structuresp. 146
Prospects for Applications of PPV-Based LEDsp. 149
Conclusionsp. 150
Referencesp. 150
Polymer Morphology and Device Performance in Polymer Electronicsp. 155
Introductionp. 155
The Control of Polymer Morphologyp. 157
The Polymer-Polymer Interactions in Solutionsp. 157
The Morphology Control of Polymer Thin Films via the Spin-Coating Processp. 161
The Control of Device Performance via Morphology Controlp. 166
Conductivity of the Polymer Filmp. 166
Charge-Injection Energy Barriersp. 167
The Turn-on Voltagesp. 172
The Emission Spectrum of the Devicep. 176
The Device Quantum Efficiencyp. 180
Conclusionsp. 182
The Solvation Effect and Polymer Aggregationp. 182
The Device Emission Color and the Quantum Efficiencyp. 182
The Conductivity of the Filmp. 182
The Turn-on Voltage of the PLED Devicep. 183
Referencesp. 183
On the Origin of Double Light Spikes from Polymer Light-Emitting Devicesp. 187
Introductionp. 187
Experimentalp. 188
Results and Analysisp. 190
Discussionp. 199
Conclusionsp. 202
Referencesp. 203
Electroluminescence with Poly(para-phenylenes)p. 205
Introductionp. 205
Physical Properties of Oligophenyls and Polyphenylsp. 206
Processing and Stabilityp. 206
Geometric Arrangement of Para-phenylenesp. 208
Absorption Propertiesp. 209
Emission Propertiesp. 214
Excited Statesp. 214
Charge Transportp. 217
Electroluminescencep. 220
Single-Layer LED Based on PPP-Type Polymersp. 220
Emission Colorsp. 224
LEDs Based on Multilayer Structuresp. 225
LEDs Based on Polymer Blendsp. 229
Light-Emitting Electrochemical Cells Based on PPPsp. 233
Conclusionsp. 238
Referencesp. 238
Direct and Alternating Current Light-Emitting Devices Based on Pyridine-Containing Conjugated Polymersp. 245
Introductionp. 245
Experimentsp. 247
Results and Discussionp. 249
Summary and Conclusionp. 261
Referencesp. 262
Polyfluorene Electroluminescencep. 265
Introductionp. 265
Synthesis and Characterization of Polyfluorenep. 266
Polyfluorene Synthesisp. 266
Optical and Physical Characterizationp. 268
Electronic Characterizationp. 270
Electroluminescencep. 275
Polyfluorene Electroluminescencep. 275
Fluorene-Based Copolymersp. 282
Doped Polyfluorene Light-Emitting Diodesp. 288
Concluding Remarksp. 298
Referencesp. 299
Indexp. 303
Table of Contents provided by Rittenhouse. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780387953434
ISBN-10: 0387953434
Audience: Tertiary; University or College
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 309
Published: 31st October 2003
Publisher: Springer-Verlag New York Inc.
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 23.5 x 15.5  x 2.03
Weight (kg): 0.68